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Locality-specific Peripheral Interrupts (LPIs) are always message-based, and can be from a peripheral, or from a PCIe root complex.
An LPI targets only one core. LPIs are generated when the peripheral writes to the ITS. The ITS contains the registers to control the generation and maintenance of LPIs. The ITS provides INTID translation, allowing peripherals to be owned directly by a virtual machine if an SMMU is also present for those peripherals.