Fast Models Portfolio 7.0 Release Notes
(version 7.0.38 dated 2011/11/24 15:05:11 GMT)
Detailed documentation can be found in the doc subfolder for Fast Models Tools and the Docs subfolder for the Fast Models Portfolio.
A significant number of the examples in the Fast Models Portfolio 7.0 documentation make use of images containing third-party IP. These have been split out into a separate 'Third Party IP' package that can be downloaded from:
Not installing these images will mean that any examples that require dhrystone.axf, dhrystone_v7m.axf or the Linux images will not be functional, as well as any example using OSCI System C 2.2 and TLM 2.0.
Enhancements and changes in the Fast Models Portfolio 7.0 release
Fast Models 7.0 includes the following enhancements/changes since 6.1:
x86-64 host support
Fast Models now supports building Platform models targeting 64-bit under both Linux and Microsoft Windows.
Under Linux a host platform with a 64-bit CPU and a 64-bit version of RedHat Enterprise Linux version 4 or above is required. GCC 4.1.2 or upwards is required. GCC 3.4 is not supported for 64-bit host platform models.
Under Microsoft Windows a host platform with a 64-bit CPU and a 64-bit version of Microsoft Windows is required. Note that Microsoft Windows XP 64 is not supported. Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 SP1 and the Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 Service Pack 1 ATL Security Update is required. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 is not supported for 64-bit host platform models.
Building 64-bit host models
Additional project configurations are now available for newly-created System Canvas projects; and selected updated example projects. To build for a Linux 64-bit host, start System Canvas and change the 'Active Project Configuration' to either Linux64-Release-GCC-4.1 or Linux64-Debug-GCC-4.1, then rebuild the project. To build for a Microsoft Windows host choose either 'Win64-Debug-VC2008' or 'Win64-Release-VC2008'.
Running 64-bit host models
Models compiled as a standalone ISIM system can be run as normal by running the ISIM itself. Models compiled as CADI libraries can be run using the 64-bit version of Model Shell, which can be found in:
- The architecture of Model Shell must match the architecture of the CADI library.
Microsoft Windows 7 support
Microsoft Windows 7 is now fully supported.
- Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 is not supported on Microsoft Windows 7.
AMBA 4 (beta)
AMBA-PV has been extended to support the extended attributes provided by AMBA 4, including ACE-lite. (This also includes a development preview of full coherent ACE.)
The bridges between PVBus and AMBA-PV have been extended to allow AXI4/ACE-lite/DVM ports to be connected in an exported virtual subsystem.
A model of the ARM Cortex-A7 MPCore processor is introduced. This is an ARM-v7A profile core with AMBA 4 support.
There are four variants introduced in the Fast Models 7.0 release, each with supporting peripherals:
- Cortex-A7_MPx1 - 1-core MPCore processor
- Cortex-A7_MPx2 - 2-core MPCore processor
- Cortex-A7_MPx3 - 3-core MPCore processor
- Cortex-A7_MPx4 - 4-core MPCore processor.
ARM Cortex-A15 r2
The model of the ARM Cortex-A15 MPCore processor has been extended to the r2 revision of the processor. The model also now has AMBA 4 support.
ARM Cortex-A9 r3
The model of the ARM Cortex-A9 processor has been extended to the r3 revision of the processor. Support for architectural debug has also been added.
ARM Cortex-R5 r1p2
The model of the ARM Cortex-R5 processor has been extended to the r1p2 revision of the processor.
ARM PL330 DMA controller
A model of the ARM PL330 DMA controller is introduced.
ARM CoreLink CCI-400 Cache Coherent Interconnect
A model of the ARM CoreLink CCI-400 Cache Coherent Interconnect is introduced.
ARM CoreLink GIC-400 Generic Interrupt Controller
A model of the ARM CoreLink GIC-400 Generic Interrupt Controller is introduced.
User-mode networking (Development Preview)
The TAP/Tun based networking support in Fast Models requires administrative privileges to the machine in order to install and configure. User Mode Networking provides an alternative which allows the use of a significant number of IP network services without requiring administrative privileges, or the installation of a separate driver on the host on which the model is running.
User Mode Networking emulates a built-in IP router and DHCP server, which will route traffic via the host user mode socket layer.
The notable restrictions in functionality are:
If your application requires any other protocols or needs to operate at a lower layer in the OSI stack, then you must use the TUN/TAP based networking.
- only TCP and UDP based protocols are supported
- no services can listen on host privileged ports
- no use of the ICMP protocol (for example ping).
Three new configuration options have been added to the HostBridge component:
- userNetworking (boolean). If set to true enables the User Mode Networking support. This causes the model's outgoing Ethernet packets to be directed to a proxy router which translates them into host socket calls. If set to false (default) the model will attempt to open a TUN/TAP device.
- userNetSubnet (string). This specifies a range of network addresses that will be presented to the model as if it was connected to that subnet. This is in the "ip-address/significant-bits" syntax, for example 192.168.0.0/24 or 10.0.0.0/8. Trailing zero octets may be omitted so, for example, 192.168/16 is acceptable. The default subnet is 172.31.254.0/24, taken from the RFC1918 private-use area.
- userNetPorts (string) specifies an optional port number mapping between listening ports on the host and listening ports on the model. This allows services to appear to be listening in privileged ports in the emulated system but be mapped unprivileged ports on the host system. The syntax is a comma-separated list of items in the form "[host-ip:]hostport=[model-ip:]modelport". For example "5022=22,5080=80", which causes sshd and httpd services on the model to listen on ports 5022 and 5080 on the host machine. The optional host-ip and/or model-ip may be used to select a specific interface on which the mapping will occur (for example 127.0.0.1). The default is to accept connections on any interface (INADDR_ANY).
Configuring the guest operating system for networking
If possible, configure the guest operating system to use DHCP to assign an IP address. Otherwise, set the IP address to the first non-zero address in the subnet configured by the userNetSubnet parameter (default 172.31.254.1) and the gateway configuration to the last address below the broadcast address (default 172.31.254.254).
Current known limitations
The following are current known limitations:
- Support for TCP Urgent is minimal, especially on Microsoft Windows hosts.
- If setup fails, or the parameter syntax is incorrect, there is currently no error reporting.
- There is currently an issue with receiving packets larger than 4K (SDDKW-13705).
- There is no support for exposing UDP servers on the model as host UDP ports.
- There is no support for packet types other than UDP and TCP, most notably no support for ICMP packets, so ping will not work.
New documentation index
The Fast Models documentation now comes with a fully-searchable index, contained in the file 'FastModelsCollection.pdf'. This is contained within the Portfolio 'Docs' directory, and is also available from a start menu link on Microsoft Windows.
Deprecated in the Fast Models Portfolio 7.0 Release
The following are deprecated in Fast Models Portfolio 7.0:
- CADI 1.1 is deprecated and will be removed in a future release of Fast Models. Please contact ARM for advice on moving to CADI 2.
- GCC 3.4 support is deprecated and will be removed in a future release.
Removed from the Fast Models Portfolio 7.0 Release
No features have been removed from the Fast Models Portfolio 7.0 Release.
Platform requirements for Microsoft Windows
When running Microsoft Windows XP or Microsoft Windows 7 it is recommended to use machines with at least 2GB RAM, and preferably at least 4GB for best performance. To use audio a 2GHz, or faster, Intel Core2Duo, or similar-performing, processor is recommended.
- Microsoft Windows XP 32-bit SP2 or SP3
- Microsoft Windows 7 32-bit RTM or SP1, Professional or Enterprise editions
- Microsoft Windows 7 64-bit RTM or SP1, Professional or Enterprise editions.
- Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 with Service Pack 1 and the Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 Service Pack 1 ATL Security Update (on Microsoft Windows XP only)
- Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 with Service Pack 1 and the Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 Service Pack 1 ATL Security Update.
- Fast Models Portfolio does not contain the Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 SP1 or Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 SP1 runtime libraries.
- The Fast Models tools require the Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 SP1 runtime libraries to be installed. These must be downloaded from Microsoft.
- Models built with Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 SP1 require the Microsoft Visual Studio SP1 Redistributable Package to be installed in order to run.
- Models built with Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 SP1 require both the Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 SP1 and the Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 SP1 Redistributable Package to be installed in order to run.
Please email email@example.com with any comments
To view the documentation, Adobe Acrobat reader (Version 8 or higher) needs to be installed on the system.
Platform requirements for Linux
When running on Linux it is recommended to use machines with at least 2GB RAM, and preferably at least 4GB for best performance. To use audio a 2GHz, or faster, Intel Core2Duo, or similar-performing, processor is recommended.
- Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 (on either 32-bit or 64-bit architecture)
- Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 (on either 32-bit or 64-bit architecture).
When building models for 32-bit hosts, Fast Models 7.0 for Linux supports the following compilers:
- gcc 3.4.3
- gcc 4.1.2 (built against at least binutils 2.17).
When building models for 64-bit hosts, Fast Models 7.0 for Linux supports the following compiler:
- gcc 4.1.2 (built against at least binutils 2.17).
For machines supplying a different compiler a separate GNU tool chain package can be downloaded from the esl-support ftp server:
To view the documentation, Adobe Acrobat reader (Version 8 or higher) needs to be installed on the system.
- gcc 3.4.3 is not supported for 64-bit host models.
Licence management utilities
If you are using floating licenses, you must use FLEXnet license management utilities version 9.2 or higher. FLEXnet 10.8 license management utilities are as an optional installable component in the product installer.
Use the highest version of the license management utilities provided with any ARM tools you are using. It is recommended to set up the user environment running applications of the Fast Models product only for one armlmd license server, because spreading Fast Models license features over different servers could result in license denials for certain features.
For more instructions on installing licenses please consult the ARM online documentation:
This section covers installation information for:
Microsoft Windows XP and Microsoft Windows 7
The Fast Models Portfolio installs its examples into the specified install location, which is normally under C:\Program Files\ARM\ On Microsoft Windows 7, without Administrative privileges it is not possible to build and run the examples in situ. It is therefore necessary to copy the file hierarchy under C:\Program Files\ARM\FastModelPortfolio_7.0\examples to a local directory to which the user has read/write permissions. Once this is done, it is necessary to load examples into the System Canvas tool from this new location (TA-588366/SDDKW-3784).
By default, Microsoft Windows 7 does not provide an executable telnet client. For instructions on how to deal with this, please see Chapter 5 of the Fast Models Reference Manual.
Once you have installed the Fast Models package, it is necessary to source the following script (dependent on shell) to set up up the appropriate environment variables. This should ideally be included such that it is sourced into the user's environment when they log in:
- For bash/sh: . <install_directory>/FastModelTools_7.0/source_all.sh
- For csh: source <install_directory>/FastModelTools_7.0/source_all.csh
The Third-Party IP package (TPIP) must be installed after the Fast Models package.
Using the MPS platform model
This section provides information for loading and running the platform.
Loading and running the platform
The platform model comes with a pre-built flash image that contains a slightly modified version of the MPS BootMonitor and the MPS SelfTests. The platform has a parameter for the name of the file that is loaded into the flash on startup. In order to use the flash image this parameter needs to be set properly.
- with a relative path: coretile.fname=mps_flash.bin
- with an absolute path on Microsoft Windows assuming the default installation directory: coretile.fname="C:\Program Files\ARM\FastModelPortfolio_7.0\examples\RTSM_MPS\mps_flash.bin"
- with an absolute path on Linux assuming the default installation directory: coretile.fname="/home/username/ARM/FastModelPortfolio_7.0/examples/RTSM_MPS/mps_flash.bin"
The BootMonitor can be used to start images from flash:
- To enter the flash menu type flash.
- To list the available images type list images.
- To run an image type run selftest_mpb_ESL.
When running the MPS SelfTests, the following tests are expected to fail on the MPS platform model:
- 1.1 Audio Loopback
- Reason: no loopback simulated.
- 10 USB
- Reason: USB not supported.
Using the ARM Profiler with Fast Models 7.0
Fast Models version 7.0 supports ARM Profiler version 2.1, as shipped in ARM RealView Development Studio 4.0 SP2, and later. It does not support the use of ARM Profiler 2.0 or earlier, which was shipped in ARM RealView Development Studio 4.0 and 4.0 SP1.
If you currently have ARM Profiler 2.0 and wish to use the ARM Profiler with Fast Models 7.0, it will be necessary to upgrade to ARM RVDS 4.0 SP2. Please contact ARM Support for further details.
Using TAP/TUN-based Model Networking
Fast Models Version 6.0 added a new model-to-host networking implementation based on TAP/TUN. This has a number of advantages compared to the previous version:
- Only requires root/administrator access at install time
- No longer requires nicserver.
Installation instructions for Model Networking can be found in the Fast Models Reference Manual, Sections 5.4.43, 5.6.2, and 5.6.3.
However, due to the different implementation and configuration methods, you may encounter some issues during installation:
- Symptom: The model networking worked after the first time setup, then stopped working after reboot.
- Solution: This is typically caused by /dev/net/tun not having correct access permissions. To fix this, set the correct permission to the device by executing chmod 666 /dev/net/tun as root. To preserve the change across reboots, the udev rules of the tap device need to be modified:
- Open /etc/udev/rules.d/50-udev.rules as root, find the line:
- Check if it has MODE="0666" at the end of the line. If not, append MODE="0666" to the line:
KERNEL=="tun", NAME="net/%k", MODE="0666"
- Symptom: Model Networking installs correctly, however when a model is started, the model cannot receive any packets.
- Solution: This is typically caused by the firewall on the host machine. Disable the firewall, or add tap device to "trusted devices". Please refer to your vendor's documentation manual for how to do this.
The following known issues and limitations exist in this release:
CT model issues
CT model issues are as follows:
- DMA into TCMs can produce incorrect results in big endian mode (TA-506423/SDDKW-2770).
- Connecting to multiple RTSM or Model Library models concurrently using RealView Debugger can cause instability. This applies to all models which have been generated using Fast Models (TA-514865/SDDKW-2895).
- Exception breakpoints appear in Model Debugger's breakpoint manager, however they cannot be configured. This can be worked around by configuring them using the "Exception Traps" register pane instead (TA-550165/SDDKW-3193).
- The Cortex-R4 fast model treats TCM memory as cacheable. If both TCMs and caches are configured and the TCM memory is marked cacheable then the model will respect this and pollute the cache. In the real device TCM memory is never cacheable even if marked as such (SDDKW-3206).
- The Cortex-A9MP and Cortex-A5MP fast models ignore the SCU invalidate all register (TA-558715/SDDKW-3385).
- The Cortex-A9MP and Cortex-A5MP fast models ignore the SCU enable bit. Therefore the SCU is always enabled (TA-558221/SDDKW-3373).
- The Cortex-A9MP and Cortex-A5MP fast models do not implement address filtering within the SCU. The enable bit for this feature is ignored (TA-558719/SDDKW-3388).
- Functional caches are architectural cache models that do not have device accurate behavior relating to tag allocation, victim selection and physical/virtual indexing behavior (TA-732864/SDDKW-8185).
- Broadcast Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) or cache operations in the Cortex-A9MP fast model do not cause other cores in the cluster which are asleep due to Wait For Interrupt (WFI) to wake up (TA-558220/SDDKW-3372).
- The Cortex-R4 fast model ignores the Cache Size Override register (TA-572916/SDDKW-3584).
- vfp registers are not displayed if ase-present is set. Enabling the ase-present parameter should force the vfp-present parameter to be set automatically. This is not currently implemented so it is necessary to manually set vfp-present when setting ase-present. This will then enable the display of vfp registers (TA-571230/SDDKW-3554).
- Cortex A8 L2 cache write allocate policy is not configurable. It defaults to write-allocate. Writes to the configuration register will succeed but will be ignored, meaning that data can be unexpectedly stored in the L2 cache (TA-573071/SDDKW-3598).
- Default PVBus bus response for exclusive access has the wrong sense. EXOK should be mapped to TX_OK, and OK should be mapped to TX_EXCLUSIVEABORT for exclusive access. TLM2 AMBA-PV behaves correctly (TA-641720/SDDKW-4491).
- When taking an exclusive read abort the Cortex-A9 model can return an fsr with a value of 0, which is not valid (TA-639621/SDDKW-4446).
- PVBus function getMasterID() may be deprecated in a future release (TA-659219/SDDKW-4677).
- Models only support some types of memory breakpoints. Currently the error message returned if an unsupported type is used may not clearly indicate that the breakpoint type is unsupported (TA-662969/SDDKW-4722).
- pv::TransactionGenerator does not support exclusive accesses (TA-659218/SDDKW-4676).
- CADI calls not supported by Fast Models. The following methods are not supported by Fast Models.
- Parameter API
- Register API
- Memory API
- Virtual Memory API
- Cache API
- Execution API
CADI methods deprecated for use in Fast Models 7.0 (TA-684124/SDDKW-5033):
- "Goto Main" from Model Debugger is not supported with Cortex-A9MP, Cortex-A9UP, Cortex-A5MP and Cortex-A5UP fast models (TA-571017/SDDKW-3550).
- The Cortex-A9MP and Cortex-A5MP GIC does not implement the cfgsdisable behavior to make some registers read-only (TA-549471/SDDKW-3190).
- FlashLoader now has parameters to allow the flash file to be saved at the end of a simulation, preserving flash contents as would happen on real hardware. This functionality is Beta quality and may not work in all cases (TA-721877/SDDKW-6651).
- Cortex A8 does not support a zero-sized L2 cache. All other cache sizes are supported (TA-725232/SDDKW-7393).
- When attempting to debug an ISIM system, if you launch Model Debugger from System Canvas and then specify an application to load, this causes an error in Model Debugger (Error using application...), and the model and application fail to load.
Workaround: Launch Model Debugger without specifying an application, and then load the application from within Model Debugger itself using File -> Load Application Code (SDDKW-10295).
The GIC-400 model has the following known limitations (SDDKW-13075):
- Reads and writes to the GICD_ISACTIVERn/GICD_ICACTIVERn/GICD_ISPENDRn/GICD_ICPENDRn may not work as expected unless there is a configured target in GICD_ICFGRm.
- Some of the interaction of GICD_CTLR.EnableGrpX and level sensitive interrupts may not work entirely correctly.
- The signals nIRQOUT/nFIQOUT are not modelled.
- All interrupts are modelled with positive logic, rather than the negative logic used in the hardware. Hence all signal pins have their 'n' prefix dropped.
- The Cortex A15 and Cortex A7 models claim to have parameters named CFGNMFI, POWERCTLI, and SMPnAMP. These settings do not correspond to hardware functionality, and their value will be ignored by the model (SDDKW-12392).
- The Fast Models documentation states that a LISA component that is going to act as a bus slave must instantiate a PVBusSlave sub-component. There was a back-door where a slave port of type PVBusProtocol could simply implement a read() and write() method without requiring a PVBusSlave sub-component. This was not intended usage, and as of FM7.0 this back-door no longer works. LISA component designers must now adhere to the instructions given in DUI0423 (see 5.2.5 PVBusSlave component) and/or copy the structure of the FastModels example peripherals (SDDKW-13968).
- There is a limitation in the ACE cache models in Cortex-A15 and Cortex-A7, and the ACE support in the CCI-400: these functional models only handle processing a single transaction at a time. Under normal use this won't cause any problems, because the simulation will process each transaction to completion before allowing any master to generate another transaction.
There are two situations in which this might fail:
- If there is a loop in the bus topology, such that there is a path of bus connections going out of the master port from a component back into one of its slave ports. This can potentially cause problems even if it isn't possible for a single transaction to go round the loop (for example, if there are bus-decoders that limit the paths that a transaction can take) (SDDKW-13039).
- If a SystemC bus slave calls wait() while it is processing a transaction, it may allow another master to issue a transaction that passes through the CCI-400 or the Cortex-A15/Cortex-A7 caches. This could happen if a SystemC bus master running in another thread is connected to one of the ACE-lite ports on the CCI-400 (SDDKW-12826).
If these restrictions are likely to cause problems, contact ARM for further details.
Model Trace Interface (MTI)
Trace output from the ARM Cortex-M3 fast model has the following known limitations:
- The xPSR register is currently called "CPSR" in the register trace events (TA-723280/SDDKW-7025).
- Fast Models 6.1 introduced the ability to unregister an MTI callback whilst within the same callback. This does not work for adding new callbacks or unregistering any other callback and may result in a crash or unexpected extra calls to unrelated callbacks (SDDKW-11567).
- If a plugin is created and the MTI::PluginFactory::Instantiate() method returns a pointer to a location above the 4G address space then the simulation may segfault if the MTI trace callback is called (SDDKW-12628).
CLCD has the following known limitations:
- SDL, the library used to provide the visualization component, can only open one window per process. Models should only ever open one window (TA-455617/SDDKW-2246).
The following parameters of the PL011 UART are being deprecated in the next release of the product (TA-641768/SDDKW-4497):
Model generation issues
If a PARAMETER has no type specified, PARAMETER will default to a uint32_t and a warning will be generated. It is recommended that type be specified explicitly as this warning may be promoted to an error in a future version (SDDKW-7124).
There are two known networking limitations:
- The default firewall configuration on Redhat Enterprise Linux 5 blocks transmission of packets across the bridge device created as part of the Fast Models TAP networking solution. This will lead to a loss of host network connectivity if TAP based networking is configured on a host with the firewall active. This can be worked around by disabling the firewall. If the models are to be used in an environment where it is not possible to disable the firewall then additional firewall rules will be required to allow transmission.
The following iptables commands should configure the firewall to allow packets across the bridge device:
- iptables -I FORWARD -m physdev --physdev-is-bridged -j ACCEPT
- service iptables restart (SDDKW-14139).
- If Dynamic DNS is being used to by the host such that suitable records are inserted into DNS if the host is managed via DHCP installing TAP networking may cause failure to register in the DNS. This happens due to the DHCP client being rerun after the physical device is attached to the bridge device. At this point the correct hostname is not passed in the DHCP request. There is no workaround for this issue at this time (SDDKW-14140).
- Most WiFi adaptors do not implement the required support for TAP networking to work. There is no workaround for this problem (SDDKW-14142).