Building Linux Applications using RVDS 3.1 and the GNU Tools and Libraries

Application Note 178



Release information

The following changes have been made to this Application Note.

Change history

Date

Issue

Change

June 2007

A

First release for RVDS 3.1, based on Application Note 150, updated for RVCT 3.1, CodeSourcery 2007-q1-10 release and C++ exceptions

April 2008

B

Updated for RVDS 3.1 Professional, updated examples for new CodeSourcery releases, updated header files, added GNU2RVCT

Proprietary notice

Words and logos marked with ® or © are registered trademarks or trademarks owned by ARM Limited, except as otherwise stated below in this proprietary notice. Other brands and names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.

Neither the whole nor any part of the information contained in, or the product described in, this document may be adapted or reproduced in any material form except with the prior written permission of the copyright holder.

The product described in this document is subject to continuous developments and improvements. All particulars of the product and its use contained in this document are given by ARM in good faith. However, all warranties implied or expressed, including but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability, or fitness for purpose, are excluded.

This document is intended only to assist the reader in the use of the product. ARM Limited shall not be liable for any loss or damage arising from the use of any information in this document, or any error or omission in such information, or any incorrect use of the product.

Confidentiality status

This document is Open Access. This document has no restriction on distribution.

Feedback on this Application Note

If you have any comments on this Application Note, please send email to errata@arm.com giving:

·         the document title

·         the document number

·         the page number(s) to which your comments refer

·         an explanation of your comments.

General suggestions for additions and improvements are also welcome.

1                   Introduction

1.1             Legal notices and support status

IMPORTANT LEGAL NOTE

ALL USE OF THE RVDS SOFTWARE IS GOVERNED BY THE TERMS OF THE RVDS END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT. NOTHING IN THIS DOCUMENT VARIES THIS LICENSE OR GRANTS YOU ANY ADDITIONAL RIGHTS. NOTHING IN THIS DOCUMENT CONSTITUTES LEGAL ADVICE. IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS PLEASE CONSULT YOUR LAWYER.

Example code end-user license agreement (EULA)

The end-user license agreement for the included examples can be found in the accompanying EULA.txt file.  Please read this license before using the examples.  You must agree to the terms of the license before using the example code.

Disclaimer

Please note that should you choose to use this example code in conjunction with your own or third party proprietary software and the GNU C library or any other open source code, you do so entirely at your own risk. ARM makes no representation or warranty as to the legal or business implications of such use. You should consult your own legal advisors if you have any concerns about this. Also, for the avoidance of any doubt, the example code is not open source software. Nothing in your license for this example code or your license (if any) for the ARM RealView Development Suite or, if applicable, RealView Compilation Tools or other ARM development tools products, allows you to distribute this example code, or the libraries or example code supplied by ARM with RVDS or RVCT, or any derivative or collective work created using such software, under a GNU Public License, or other open source license.

Support status

Please note that ARM does not provide support on the use of GNU tools or Linux.  The information provided here is given for your reference only.  We can provide limited support for the instructions in this document to customers with a valid RealView tools support contract with us.  However, we suggest that in the first instance you discuss your issue in one of the various public forums, such as the comp.sys.arm newsgroup and the ARM website forums.

Alternatively you may prefer to contact CodeSourcery, who can provide paid support and assistance on the GNU tools or accept defect reports.  Further information is available from CodeSourcery’s GNU toolchain page at: http://www.codesourcery.com/gnu_toolchains/arm/
CodeSourcery also provide a mailing list for queries on the ARM GNU toolchain.  Details of how to subscribe to this list can be found on the CodeSourcery website.

1.2             Scope of this document

This application note gives an introduction to building a Linux application or library, linked with the GNU C and C++ libraries, using the compilation tools provided as part of the RealView Development Suite (RVDS) 3.1 or the RealView Development Suite (RVDS) 3.1 Professional.  These are referred to in the rest of this application note as RVCT.

RVCT is primarily aimed at building static images for a standalone embedded system, rather than dynamically-linked images such as Linux applications.  However, with RVCT 3.1 it is possible to create dynamic images that can run under Linux using the GNU C library.

This application note covers the command-line options used to build a Linux-compatible executable, and describes how to use header files and libraries from the GNU C library (glibc). These instructions specifically cover the CodeSourcery 2006-q1-6 and later releases and the examples have been tested with the CodeSourcery 2006-q1-6 to 2007-q3-51 releases inclusive.

Expected use

This application note is intended to cover most expected use cases.  It is specifically aimed at developing Linux applications and libraries in the following situations:

·         Building a standalone Linux application with RVCT

·         Building static and shared libraries with RVCT, and linking these to an application built with RVCT

·         Building a static or shared library with RVCT, and linking this to an application built with the GNU toolchain

Example code

The following examples are supplied, with complete code and makefiles:

·         A “hello world” example, which is suitable as a template for your own application builds

·         The Dhrystone benchmark, as an example of a simple yet non-trivial application

·         A simple example of a C++ application

·         An example demonstrating how to build and use static and dynamic libraries with C and assembly code

·         An example demonstrating how to build and use static and dynamic libraries with C++ using a combination of GNU and RVCT tools

·         A simple example of a C++ program that uses C++ exceptions

·         An example demonstrating how to use C++ exceptions between static and dynamic libraries

For further details of the examples, please see Chapter 4.

1.3             Limitations

There are several limitations on interoperation between the GNU tools and libraries and RVCT:

The GNU binutils (including ld) from CodeSourcery’s 2005-q3-2 release cannot consume RVCT 3.1 objects

For linking with the GNU C library, you should use the 2005-q3-2 release of the CodeSourcery tools (or a later release).  However, due to updates in the ARM ABI ELF specification, the binary utilities (binutils) from this CodeSourcery release cannot consume object files built by RVCT 3.1.  Support for the new ELF ABI revision is in the 2006-q1 and later releases.

RVCT cannot be used for compiling the Linux kernel or kernel-based code, such as device drivers or other kernel modules

This is because a significant portion of the kernel code is written in assembly language using the GNU assembler (“gas”) syntax.  This is incompatible with armasm, and there is no performance gain to be made from rebuilding such code with a different assembler.

In addition, the function interfaces for the kernel code prior to version 2.6.16 have not been written to comply with the ABI.  This means that drivers and other kernel modules cannot be compiled using RVCT as there are no guarantees that calls would be made correctly between the kernel and the driver code.  You must use the GNU toolchain when building the kernel and kernel modules.

Only ARM architecture versions 5TE and above are supported

See “Target Requirements” below.

C++ exceptions are only supported with CodeSourcery’s 2007-q1-10 or later releases

Due to slight implementation differences between how C++ exceptions are dealt with in RVCT and GCC, the GNU C/C++ library prior to the CodeSourcery 2007-q1-10 release did not support code generated by RVCT that used exceptions. Therefore to use C++ exceptions you must use the CodeSourcery 2007-q1-10 release or later. This includes using these libraries on your target’s filesystem.

Also the RVCT exception handling code only supports exceptions within a statically linked image. To throw exceptions between applications and shared libraries you must use the unwinding code provided in the GCC support libraries.

You must take care when using alloca()

This is implemented in a compiler-specific way, therefore when calling the function from RVCT-compiled code you must statically link against the implementation in the RVCT libraries.  This is contained in the alloca.o and rt_alloca_state.o C library objects.  Note also that the RVCT library implementation of alloca() is not thread-safe and using alloca() with setjmp() and longjmp() might lead to memory leaks. You might want to write your own alloca() implementation around malloc(), however this would not be trivial and we suggest that you call malloc() and free() directly where possible.

GCC inline assembly code is not compatible with RVCT and vice versa

RVCT and GCC use different syntax for inline assembly. RVCT can not compile GCC syntax and vice versa. The recommended solution is to conditionally use alternative copies of your inline assembly code with the appropriate syntax for each toolchain.

GAS assembly files are not compatible with the RVCT assembler and vice versa

Assembly language files cannot be built by both armasm and the GNU assembler (gas) as they use different syntax.

1.4             Requirements

This document assumes that you are familiar with RVDS, the GNU tools and Linux.

Target requirements

Please note that the instructions in this document relate to building Linux applications for ARM architecture v5TE or later targets, such as the ARM926EJ-S or ARM1176JZ-S.   This is because the ARM ABI uses architecture v5TE as its base architecture and earlier architecture versions are not fully covered by the ABI.

You might be able to use these instructions to build Linux applications for ARM architecture v4T cores (such as the ARM720T and ARM920T) with RVCT.  However, this is entirely at your own risk and is not supported.  In particular, you will not be able to use Thumb code built for architecture v4T in shared libraries.  We suggest that you only use the GNU toolchain when building Linux applications for ARM architecture v4T targets.

Your target’s filesystem must contain the ABI-compliant library binaries.  These are included in the CodeSourcery GNU toolchain releases described below in the build requirements.  Finally, the target must be running a Linux kernel with support for NPTL (the Native POSIX Threading Library, the more recent mechanism for supporting multithreaded code under Linux with the GNU C library) and TLS (thread-local storage).  See section 1.4 below for further details on the ABI requirements on your target system.

For the mainstream kernel source, this means that your target must be running version 2.6.12 (or later) of the Linux kernel.  However, your Linux distribution may have applied the appropriate patches to its release of an earlier kernel.  You should contact your Linux distributor for further details.

Prebuilt binary images of the Linux kernel configured for ARM’s own development boards can be found on the ARM website at: http://www.arm.com/linux/prebuilt_download.html

Build requirements

All information in this document relates to the use of RVCT 3.1.

Note that CodeSourcery’s 2005-q1 release was the first to allow EABI-compliant interoperation between RVCT and the GNU toolchain.  However, several enhancements and fixes have been made since then and the instructions in this document relate only to the CodeSourcery 2006-q1-6 and beyond, as it is now simpler and safer to link with the newer release. We suggest that you use the most recent CodeSourcery release (2007-q3-51 at the time of writing) if possible.

We suggest that you use at least the Codeourcery 2005q3-2 or a later release. Any work that you do using CodeSourcery’s 2005-q1 or older releases is at your own risk and ARM will not be able to provide any support when using RVCT with these old versions. At the time of writing the CodeSourcery binary and source packages for the GNU toolchains can be found at: http://www.codesourcery.com/gnu_toolchains/arm/

Your ARM Linux distribution might already use the CodeSourcery toolchain or have the appropriate patches applied.  You should contact your ARM Linux distributor for further details.

The examples have been tested using RVCT 3.1 and CodeSourcery releases 2006-q1-6 to 2007-q3-51 .The example makefiles have all been developed for and tested with GNU make 3.81, as provided with RVDS 3.1, however they should also work correctly on other recent versions of GNU make.

1.5             About the ARM ABI (Application Binary Interface)

The Application Binary Interface (ABI) for the ARM Architecture is a collection of standards, some open and some specific to the ARM architecture. The standards regulate the interoperation of binary code, development tools, and a spectrum of ARM core-based execution environments from bare metal to platform operating systems such as ARM Linux.

A third-party toolchain such as the GNU tools must comply with the standards given in the ABI for its objects to link and interoperate correctly with those produced by RVCT.  The CodeSourcery release of the GNU tools is specifically tailored to fully support the ARM ABI and allow objects produced using both RVCT and the GNU tools to work together successfully.

Further details of the ARM ABI, including the full ABI documents, can be found on the ARM website at: http://www.arm.com/products/DevTools/ABI.html

1.5.1          Interactions between mixed-ABI components

It is possible that you are not using an ABI compliant kernel and that you may need to build a mixed ABI system.  Kernels before version 2.6.16 can only be built using the legacy GNU ABI (use GCC option –mabi=apcs-gnu when using the CodeSourcery toolchain).  This includes all kernel modules and device drivers.

This can cause problems when your applications or libraries must interface directly with kernel structures or functions (syscalls), including through the use of a shared header file describing kernel structures.  In this case, you must use assembly code or modified descriptions of the structures to translate between the two ABIs when calling kernel functions or manipulating kernel data structures in your applications or libraries.

As of kernel 2.6.16, the Linux kernel can be built using the new ARM EABI.  This allows for much simpler integration of applications and libraries to form a completely EABI-compliant system.

2                   Command-line options

Several command-line options are required when compiling, assembling and linking your source files.  These are explained in the following sections.  Examples of the full command lines can be found in the example makefiles.

Please note that you should also be careful when using other compiler and linker switches.  For example, you cannot use --apcs /rwpi as Linux uses a different model (fpic) for relocatable code.

2.1             Compiler language and code-generation options

There are a number of options required when compiling source files for Linux applications:

--gnu
As the headers accompanying the GNU C libraries must be used when linking against
glibc, you must pass this switch to the ARM compiler to enable support for the GNU extensions.  See the section 3.7 GNU language extensions in the RVCT 3.1 Compiler Reference Guide for a full explanation of the GNU extensions supported by RVCT.

--enum_is_int
This causes all enums to be treated as integer types. This is required by the CodeSourcery document “ARM GNU/Linux Application Binary Interface Supplement” for building Linux applications.  For more information on this option, see the Chapter on Compiler Command-line Options of the RVCT 3.1 Compiler Reference Guide.

--library_interface=aeabi_glibc
This disables certain optimizations that the ARM compiler uses by default when linking with the RVCT libraries.

--apcs /interwork
This instructs the compiler to build all code for interworking, and to set the build attributes in the output objects accordingly.  This ensures that your code is built correctly for ARM/Thumb interworking.  It also helps to prevent the linker generating additional warnings, as GCC does not add build attributes to an object file that indicates whether it was compiled for ARM/Thumb interworking or not.

--no_hide_all
This instructs the compiler to use dynamic import and export for the symbols in an image.  This sets the visibility of references and definitions in the image so that they can be dynamically linked.

--wchar32
This
changes the type of wchar_t to unsigned int instead of unsigned short. This is required by the CodeSourcery document “ARM GNU/Linux Application Binary Interface Supplement” for building Linux applications.

Optional compiler switches

--signed_bitfields
This option makes bitfields signed by default.  If you are building code that has previously been targeted at GCC, you may need to use this switch for compatibility.

--c99
This option enables the enables the compilation of ISO C99 source code.

You should note that the default optimization levels for GNU and RVCT toolchains differ, for example RVCT defaults to optimizing for image size while GNU optimizes for execution speed by default. This means that particular care needs to be taken when comparing the results of building the same code with the two toolchains. For a fairer comparison RVCT should be instructed to optimize for execution speed using -Otime, with an optimization level e.g. -O2, or GNU to optimize for image size using -Os.

2.2             Assembler command-line options

When using assembly code in your application or library, two of the above compiler switches must also be given to the assembler:

--apcs /interwork
This instructs the assembler to set the build attributes in the object file to indicate that the code is ARM/Thumb interworking-safe.

--no_hide_all
This indicates that the assembler must use dynamic import and export for all global symbols.

2.3             Additional headers from RVCT

Some of the standard RVCT headers must be used in preference to those from the GNU C library.  These headers define some implementation-specific macros.  The files are provided in the include directory in the accompanying files, and this directory should be given before the GNU C library include directories in the path list.

There is also a header file (linux_rvct.h) that is always included using -–preinclude. This defines a number of macros for compatibility with GCC and the Linux environment.

If you would like to use the DSP or NEON intrinsics available in RVCT 3.1 you will need to copy the appropriate header files (dspfns.h, c55x.h, arm_neon.h) from the RVCT 3.1 include directory into your include directory. Please be aware that both dspfns.h and math.h include a definition round(), therefore you will need to rename one definition, for example:

#define round dsp_round

#include <dspfns.h>

#undef round

2.4             Paths to the GNU headers

You should use the glibc header files in order to access Linux-specific functions. It is also expected that you will wish to use the libstdc++ shared library from CodeSourcery to minimize the space required by the target filesystem. You will need to include the paths to the header files using the –J compiler switch.  If CSL_ROOT is the top-level directory of your CodeSourcery installation and GCC_VNUM is the version number of GCC being used, the following paths should be used:

$(CSL_ROOT)/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/$(GCC_VNUM)/include
$(CSL_ROOT)/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/include
$(CSL_ROOT)/include/c++/$(
GCC_VNUM)
$(CSL_ROOT)/include/c++/$(
GCC_VNUM)/arm-none-linux-gnueabi

You might also wish to include these two additional paths:

$(CSL_ROOT)/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/include/linux
– for applications that directly include kernel header files and do not specify the “linux/” directory prefix in their sources

$(CSL_ROOT)/include/c++/$(GCC_VNUM)/backward
– for legacy applications requiring older C++ header files for backwards compatibility

At the time of writing, the GCC version included with CodeSourcery’s toolchain (in the 2007-q3-51 release) is GCC 4.2.1.

Note that these are the updated paths used in the CodeSourcery 2006-q3 and later releases.

2.5             Linking the application

2.5.1          Linker options

The linker must also be passed a number of options to successfully create a Linux executable:

--sysv
This instructs the linker to use System V library linkage

--no_startup
Normally the linker will automatically add a reference to the library entry point function
__main.  However, as we will be using the GNU C library startup code the __main function will not be required and we do not need this reference.  This switch instructs the linker not to add the reference.

--no_ref_cpp_init
This instructs the linker not to add a special reference to the standard C++ initialization function
__cpp_initialize__aeabi_() when an object file contains global C++ objects whose constructors must be called at startup.  Instead the GNU C library equivalent, __libc_csu_init(), is used to perform this initialization as part of the standard GNU application startup code, and no special linker reference is required.

--userlibpath=…
You must specify the paths to the GNU libraries.  In a typical CodeSourcery installation, you are likely to need:

                     $(CSL_ROOT)/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/usr/lib
                     $(CSL_ROOT)/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/lib
                     $(CSL_ROOT)/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/lib
                     $(CSL_ROOT)/lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/$(GCC_VNUM)

--no_scanlib
Prevents the searching of the RVCT libraries. See section 3.1.3 for further details.

 

--entry _start
Your image must have its entry point set to the GNU C library initialization code.

       --keep *(.init)

       --keep *(.fini)

       --keep *(.init_array)

--keep *(.fini_array)
These options instruct the linker not to remove the C++ global constructor and destructor tables.

 

Optional linker switches

--rpath=…
This can be used to specify the location, on the target’s filesystem, of the shared libraries required by the executable.

--dynamiclinker=…
The linker can also be given the path to the dynamic linker that Linux will look for when executing the application, the default is
/lib/ld-linux.so.3.  If you do not specify a dynamic linker at build time, or the specified linker is missing, you can manually call a dynamic linker at run-time.  For example:

                     > /libeabi/ld-linux.so.3 /opt/bin/eabi/application

Further details of the linker command-line switches specific to building Linux applications can be found in section 6.2 of the RVCT 3.1 Linker and Utilities Guide.

2.5.2          Linking with the library objects

With the correct library paths in place, the GNU libraries should be linked with your application.  A full list including a discussion of the functions included is given in section 3.2. 

2.6             Building with GNU tools

You may want to build parts of your application with the GNU toolchain.  This section describes the steps that you must take.

2.6.1          Use of armlink or GNU ld

We recommend that applications built with RVCT should be linked with armlink whenever possible.  This is for ease of use when linking with a small number of helper functions which must be taken from the RVCT libraries.

When linking with GNU ld, you bear all responsibility for checking that its behavior is as you intend, and does not lead to violation of any license through, for example, the linking of additional libraries.

While it is technically possible to use GNU ld, the GNU tools are not under ARM’s control and we cannot provide any guarantees about its behavior. This may be of particular concern when linking closed-source applications; ARM can provide no details or guarantees as to whether your use of the GNU linker will pull in IP covered by a non-closed-source license grant without your explicit intention. 

You should seek legal advice regarding any such concerns, and ARM is unable to provide such advice.

2.6.2          Linking an application with GNU ld

You will typically only need to link with GNU ld where your own application is to be built and linked using the GNU tools and you are linking with a third-party library that has been built using RVCT.  Alternatively, you may wish to link a static library into your program that has been created using RVCT.

The only special requirement when using GNU ld to link object files or static libraries compiled with RVCT is to include an appropriate RVCT compiler helper library on the command line, for example h_5f.l.

If you are linking a RVCT generated shared library with only non RVCT generated object files and libraries you will not need to link with the RVCT helper library. This is because the required RVCT helper functions will have already be statically linked into the RVCT shared library and the non RVCT objects file will not require use of the RVCT helper library.

Further details on using the RVCT helper libraries can be found in section 3.1.2.

2.7             Creating and using shared libraries

Often for a Linux application you will want to create a dynamic shared library that can be linked with a variety of applications.

2.7.1          Building a shared library with RVCT

Compiler Options

When building dynamic shared libraries, all of the library code must be compiled and linked to be position-independent.  To do this, use the --apcs /fpic compiler switch.

Linker Options

armlink supports the creation of dynamic shared libraries; however this requires some additional options.

--shared
This instructs the linker to create a dynamic shared library and not a static library

--soname <name>
This specifies the SONAME (shared object name) for the library

--fpic
This
enables you to link position-independent code (compiled with –-apcs /fpic)

For example, to link libfunc.o and asmfunc.o into a dynamic shared library libdynamic.so, you can use the following linker command line:

armlink –-sysv --fpic –-shared –-soname libdynamic.so -o libdynamic.so libfunc.o asmfunc.o libc.so.6

2.7.2          Using shared libraries in your application

Shared libraries can be used with armlink in the same way as normal libraries by specifying them on the linker command line.  References to the shared library will be added to the image and resolved to the library by the dynamic loader at runtime.

Note that the order in which references are resolved is the order in which libraries are specified on the command line.  This is also the order in which the dependencies will be resolved by the dynamic linker. You can specify the runtime location of libraries using the –-rpath linker option.

2.8             Using RVCT in place of the GNU tools

RVCT and the GNU tools use very different command line options when building Linux applications. Therefore it is not possible to use RVCT as a direct replacement for the GNU tools. To build projects originally targeted at GNU, RVCT specific Makefiles need to be created to be used instead of the original GNU target Makefiles. In most circumstances this has to be done manually, which can be time consuming.

To avoid the need to port GNU targeted Makefiles to RVCT Makefiles, the GNU2RVCT script has been developed and is supplied with the examples. The GNU2RVCT script is designed to allow RVCT to be used in a build systems targeted at the GNU tools, without the need to create RVCT specific Makefiles. It works by converting the GNU command line to a suitable RVCT command line and then executing RVCT instead of the GNU tools.

The gnu2rcvt is provided "as is" in good faith and has been tested against a number of examples.  It is intended as a starting point to ease the use of RVCT, however, we cannot guarantee that it will convert all test cases correctly.

For further details please refer to the readme.txt file included in the gnu2rvct directory.

 

3                   Library use considerations

Reminder: ARM cannot provide legal advice regarding the use of open-source code or the compatibility of different licenses.  The following discussion is provided for technical reference only.  Should you choose to use these instructions or example code in conjunction with your own or third party proprietary software and the GNU C library or any other open source code, you do so entirely at your own risk. ARM makes no representation or warranty as to the legal or business implications of such use. You should consult your own legal advisors if you have any concerns about this.

3.1             Issues with library linkage

When linking applications and shared libraries there are a number of choices to be made. In particular, you might consider linking portions of the RVCT libraries and/or the GNU libraries with your application. Careful consideration must be used when choosing which library to use. Some of the points to consider are:

·         When linking with the RVCT libraries, there is the risk of linking semihosted I/O functions into an image. These semihosted functions are likely to cause the execution of your program to fail.

·         In particular, when linking with the RVCT division functions, the library code may need to be retargeted to avoid the semihosted signal-handling functions. See section 3.3.1 for details.

·         The RVCT libraries can only be statically linked into your executable or shared library.

·         A small number of library functions must always be linked into an application when compiling with armcc.  These are compiler helper functions specific to armcc that do not have a public interface (i.e. they are not covered by the ABI)

·         You may need very careful control of which files are linked into your application due to any licensing restrictions of open-source code

3.1.1          Avoiding semihosted RVCT functions

During development work, if you are experiencing execution problems that may be caused by semihosted functions or the ARM library heap functions. You may wish to add the following pragma directives to your code:

#pragma import __use_no_semihosting

#pragma import __use_no_heap_region

These causes armlink to generate an error if any semihosting library function is used, or if any of the RVCT library heap functions (for example malloc()) are used.

3.1.2          Linking with compiler helper libraries

Whenever performing a link step to create an application or dynamic shared library, you must always link with an appropriate compiler helper library.  Table 3-1 below summarizes which library you should choose for different circumstances.

When distributing a static library to a third party that has been created using RVCT, you might also need to include the objects from an appropriate helper library in your library in case these functions are not available to the user. Please note when manually selecting the libraries that the library names and contents may change between releases of the tools, and your build scripts or makefiles may need changing in the future to reflect this.

If in doubt when selecting the correct helper library, the best choice would be the h_5f.l library as this covers most typical uses, including linking your code into a shared library and cases where the application uses some Thumb code.  You should consult the RVDS End-User License Agreement (EULA) for details of the restrictions on redistribution of the RVCT libraries, including the helper libraries.

Table 3-1 Compiler helper libraries

Application or library?

Library to use

Application executable

h_5.l

Shared library or Application executable

h_5f.l

 

Note          The big endian versions of these libraries have .b file extension instead of .l

3.1.3          Controlling the functions that your application links with

Whether you are building a closed or open source application, you might want to ensure that no intellectual property covered by an incompatible license is linked into your application.

The best solution in this respect is to use the -–no_scanlib linker option.  This leaves the library selection under your full and explicit control.  If you do not use this switch, the linker will by default search the system library path as given by the RVCT31LIB environment variable or the --libpath option. As a result, the linker may pull in additional functions that you did not intend to use.  The details of the linker’s library searching behavior can be found in section 7.2 of the RVCT 3.1 Linker and Utilities Guide.

Which libraries are used by the linker can be reported by adding –-info libraries to the linker command line. For additional checks on which library functions are being included by the linker, you should consult the linker’s verbose output.  You can obtain this using the --verbose option and redirecting it to a file using --list filename.txt.  This will produce full output including details of how the linker is searching for and selecting functions from libraries to resolve references in your object files.

3.2             Libraries used by the example code

The libraries and library objects listed in Table 3-2 are linked to in the supplied examples and are expected to be used by most applications.  This is intended only as a reference and a starting point for the legal checks you should carry out on the compatibility of the various licenses covering the libraries you need to use.

Table 3-2 Libraries used in the example makefiles

Library

Description

libc.so.6, libc_nonshared.a

These constitute the main GNU C library (glibc).  All of the examples provided link with the dynamic library plus the non-shared portions of the C library in libc_nonshared.a.  In most cases this will be preferred, as you will only require one copy of the library in your target’s filesystem.

libm.so.6

This is the math library accompanying glibc.

crt1.o, crti.o, crtn.o

These objects contain the GNU application startup code, including the entry point function _start

libgcc_s.so libgcc.a

These are the compiler helper functions included with GCC.  These include ABI functions that are not part of the standard C library, for example the division functions.

libstdc++.so.6, libsupc++.a

These are the GCC C++ libraries, including the standard template library and support functions.  These are not needed if your application uses only C code.

3.3             Library linkage under particular licensing conditions

This section provides a very broad overview of the mechanisms that you can use when linking a closed-source application or one containing material covered by one or more open-source licenses.  This is a purely technical overview and for all legal concerns you should consult your own legal advisors.

3.3.1          Linking closed-source applications

In the closed-source case, you may use additional features provided by the RVCT libraries provided that your use of the libraries is permitted by the RVDS End-User License Agreement.  There are two options:

·         Use -no_scanlib and explicitly specify one or more RVCT libraries or their member functions on the linker command line.

This provides full control over exactly which functions are used.  However, you must be careful which libraries you use for different circumstances.  In particular, you must use the position independent variant of a library whenever linking its objects into a dynamic shared library. Details of library naming can be found in section 2.17 of the RVCT 3.1 Libraries Guide.

·         Allow the linker to search the RVCT libraries as it would by default.

You should ensure that all input and output routines are provided by additional libraries such as the GNU C library (
glibc), which are given on the linker command line.  Also take additional care that no other semihosting functions or heap-using functions are linked into your image.  See “Avoiding semihosted RVCT functions” in section 3.1.1 above for further details.

Also note that the ARM libraries provide a complete signal-handling interface that can be linked into an application for a number of reasons, such as to handle division by zero.  These signal-handling functions are required in a bare-metal environment.  However, they might not be needed in a Linux application and in such cases should be retargeted to use Linux system calls.  A detailed discussion of such retargeting is beyond the scope of this Application Note.  The same ABI function from the GNU libraries will be functionally equivalent, without the need for any additional work.

As with any other application, you are responsible for ensuring that the objects and libraries you provide to the linker are covered by compatible licenses.  If you are concerned about linking with code from an incompatible license, it is recommended that you use the -–no_scanlib option as above and select the library functions used in your image very carefully. 

3.3.2          Linking open-source applications

With open-source applications, it is important to understand the licensing terms your code is covered by and the implications of those terms.  You must be certain that everything you link with is covered by compatible license terms.  Please note that the RVCT C and C++ libraries are not available under an open-source license.

The only safe way of doing this is to use the -–no_scanlib linker option and explicitly specify the libraries that you wish to link with.

3.3.3          Interoperation of toolchains

When using a combination of the GNU tools and RVCT to build an application or library, additional care must be taken.

Limitations and restrictions on builds shared between toolchains

There are a number of differences between GCC and the RVCT compiler that might affect your ability to build the code with either toolchain.  In particular, note that:

·         GCC inline assembly code is not compatible with RVCT and vice versa

·         Likewise, standard assembly language files cannot be built by both armasm and the GNU assembler (gas) as they use different syntax

·         RVCT 3.1 supports the C99 standard except complex numbers and wide I/O.  You may find that you need to make some changes to your source code to take account of this, if it uses complex numbers or wide I/O.

·         Certain language extensions supported by GCC are not implemented by RVCT; this includes any implementation-specific #pragma directives

In some circumstances, you might be able to conditionally define around such code to allow building with both toolchains where this is important.

Limitations on builds using objects generated by both toolchains

Other limitations restrict how you can use objects compiled with both toolchain in the same application or library:

·         Linking C++ objects compiled with both RVCT and GCC is particularly difficult from a legal perspective and is not recommended by ARM. The interfaces between C++ objects are complex in nature at both the binary and source levels. The simplest solution is to link an entire C++ application using only one toolchain.

·         For C applications and C++ objects whose interfaces are all C (i.e. all functions and data are declared extern “C”), there should be no barriers. However, you are responsible for ensuring that all of the intellectual property in your application is used in a way that does not violate their license terms.

4                   Example code

Included with this Application Note are several examples, demonstrating the build scripts needed to create a Linux application.

4.1             Makefile templates and standard build rules

The examples each include a makefile and link to the necessary libraries.  The makefiles are all based around a series of templates that will allow you to rapidly adapt the examples to your own builds.

4.1.1          Configuration

Before the supplied makefiles can be used they need to be configured for the location and version of the CodeSourcery and RVCT tools installed. They also need configuring for the host operating system being used (Windows, Linux or Cygwin). This can be done either automatically or manually.

Automatic Configuration

To configure the makefile automatically enter “make configure” from within the examples directory. This should detect the different versions of the tools installed on your computer and create common/an178_config.mk to store this information. The examples are supplied with two versions of the main makefile (common.mk) - the automatic configuration will select the appropriate version for your host operating system. The current configuration can be updated at a later time using “make reconfigure”.

For the automatic configuration to be successful you must have the make utility, RVCT and the CodeSourcery tools on your PATH environment variable. The automatic configuration only supports the 2006-q1-6 and later CodeSourcery releases.

Manual Configuration

If the automatic configuration is unsuccessful or you are using a CodeSourcery release earlier than 2006-q1-6 you can manually configure the makefiles. This is done by creating the file an178_config.mk in the common directory. Within this file you will need to declare the variables detailed below in Table 4-1

Table 4-1 an178_config.mk configuration variables

Makefile variable

Description

CONFIG_CSL_ROOT

 

Indicates the root of your CodeSourcery installation.  On Linux this will be the directory in which you uncompressed the toolchain binaries package; on Windows this will be the directory chosen in the installer.

For example:

CONFIG_CSL_ROOT=/opt/codesourcery (Linux) CONFIG_CSL_ROOT=c:\codesourcery  (Windows)

CONFIG_CSL_REL

Configure the makefiles for the CodeSourcery release being used.

For example:

CONFIG_CSL_REL=2007q1-10

CONFIG_CSL_GCC_VNUM

 

Specifies the GCC version number installed

For example:

CONFIG_CSL_GCC_VNUM =4.2.0

Once you have done this you will need to copy the appropriate version of common.mk. First delete the original version and then copy either cmn_win.mk for Windows and Cygwin hosts to common.mk or cmn_unix.mk to common.mk for Linux hosts.

4.1.2          Application variables

The build rules in the template makefiles are controlled by a number of variables in the application makefile, as given below in Table 4-2.

Table 4-2 Additional makefile variables

Makefile variable

Description

CFLAGS

Allows application-specific options to be given to the compiler.  Most of the necessary options are provided by the makefile build rules, therefore the only options typically needed here are those required by your application.

For example, you may use -D options to pass macro definitions to the compiler, -O to specify optimization levels, or -I to specify your application’s include paths.

ASFLAGS

Allows application-specific options to be given to the assembler.  Most of the necessary options are provided by the makefile build rules.

LDFLAGS

Allows application-specific options to be given to the linker.  Most of the necessary options are provided by the makefile build rules, therefore the only options typically needed here are user library paths and switches that generate information about the application image, such as --info or --verbose.

OBJS

Lists the objects that must be compiled for the application

LIBS

Lists any additional libraries that your application links with

IMAGE

Specifies the output filename for the image

ENABLE_DEBUG

If this is defined, debug information is left in the image.  When this is not defined, debugging information is removed at the link step and fromelf is used on the final image to remove additional debug-related sections.

4.1.3          Makefile build rules

A number of functions are provided by the template makefiles for different build steps:

Table 4-3 Makefile build rules

Makefile function name

Parameters

Description

compile_app

source file, object file

Compiles a source file using armcc.  For example:
$(call compile_app,foo.c,foo.o) compiles foo.c into the object file foo.o.

compile_lib

source file, object file

Compiles a source file using armcc, built for linking into a shared library.

gcc_app

source file, object file

This rule is provided for convenience, to compile a source file using the CodeSourcery GCC compiler.

gcc_lib

source file, object file

Compiles a source file using CodeSourcery’s GCC, built for linking into a shared library.

assemble_app

source file, object file

Uses armasm to assemble a source file.

Assemble_lib

source file, object file

Uses armasm to assemble a source file, and marks the code as position-independent and therefore suitable for linking into a shared library.

link_app

image file

Links the objects specified by $(OBJS) into the image file

link_lib

library file, soname

Links the objects specified by $(OBJS) into the dynamic library and gives it the specified shared object name.  For example:
$(call link_lib,libfoo.so.1.2,libfoo.so.1) links the library libfoo.so.1.2 but gives it the shared object name libfoo.so.1.  This is commonly used to maintain different minor versions of a library in a filesystem.

gld_app

image file

Links the objects specified by $(OBJS) into the image file using GNU ld

gld_lib

image file, soname

Links the objects specified by $(OBJS) into the dynamic library using GNU ld, and gives it the specified shared object name

fromelf_image

input file, output file

Runs fromelf to strip debug data from an image

strip_image

image file

Runs GNU strip on an image to remove debug data.  This rule strips the file in place and does not create a separate, stripped copy.

armar_lib

archive file

Creates (or updates) a static library using armar with the objects specified by the $(OBJS) variable

clean_files

file list

This rule is provided to delete the specified files

4.1.4          Additional compiler and linker options

The template makefiles use some additional compiler and linker options that you may find useful when creating your own build scripts. These are described in Table 4-4.

Table 4-4 Additional compiler and linker options

Switch

Description

--bss_threshold=0

This switch controls the size of ZI data that are automatically placed into the RW section by default. The default value is 8, setting this to 0 prevents the compiler placing small pieces of ZI data into the RW section. See section 5.2 for further information.

--diag_suppress
  6318,6319,6765

The linker will typically generate a few warnings when building Linux applications, as described below.  This switch suppresses these warnings.

6318 - These warnings are generated because GCC uses linker relocations for references internal to each object, whereas all such references are resolved at compile-time by
armcc.  The targets of these relocations may not have appropriate mapping symbols that allow the linker to determine whether the target is code or data, so ordinarily a warning will be generated

6319 – The standard makefiles use --keep to retain any .init, .fini, .init_array and .fini_array sections in your objects.  This suppresses the warning that the linker is ignoring the --keep option when these are not present.

6765 – This is due to no build attributes being present in the GNU entry point code found in crt1.o, so the linker cannot determine which state (ARM or Thumb) the code will run in.  It is safe to ignore this as the application entry code is ARM code.

4.2             Simple example code

“Hello world”

This example shows how to build a very trivial application with RVCT and link with the GNU C library.  It can be used as a template for compiling your own standalone applications with RVCT.

Dhrystone

The Dhrystone benchmark is included as an example of a small but non-trivial application which makes use of further C library and operating system functions.

You might again wish to use this example as the basis for your application.  The makefile variables and layout are the same as the “hello world” example.

Simple C++ example

This is the first example that demonstrates the use of C++, this is the same as the example included with RVDS 3.1.

C++ Exception example

This example demonstrates a simple use of C++ exceptions. The program adds one to the number entered by the user. If the user enters zero it throws an exception that is caught and the appropriate message is displayed.

This example uses the RVCT library exception handling code.

4.3             Library examples

Three library examples are provided, with complete makefiles.

4.3.1          Simple C and assembly code library (example_library directory)

The first library example demonstrates the tool options required to build both static and dynamic libraries with RVCT.  The makefile for this example contains six main targets:

libsorts_static.a
This is a static library containing the example code, created using armar.  It may be possible to create libraries with GNU ar and ranlib, however there are some known implementation-defined differences between the library symbol tables generated by the GNU tools.  Where possible, you should therefore use armar provided with RVCT.

 

libsorts_dynamic.so
This is a dynamic library containing the same code as the libsorts_static.a target.

                        In particular for a dynamic library, the --apcs /fpic switch is given to the compiler, and --fpic is given to the linker.  This indicates that you wish to generate position-independent code that can be located at any arbitrary virtual address.

 

       sorts_static_rvct.axf

sorts_dynamic_rvct.axf
These are the application executables, linked against the respective libraries using
armlink.

 

       sorts_static_gld.axf

sorts_dynamic_gld.axf
These are similar to the above targets, however they are linked with GNU ld.

4.3.2          C++ example library (cpp_library directory)

This shows a simple C++ example that demonstrates the use of C++ class member functions in a library, based on the standalone C++ example.  The library also contains definitions of static objects whose constructors are called during application startup.

The main difference in the startup procedure relates to how constructors for static C++ objects are called.  For Linux applications there are two mechanisms used.

Firstly, constructors listed in the dynamic segment of a library (dynamic shared object, or DSO) are called by the dynamic loader.  The dynamic loader uses other information in the dynamic segment to determine the dependencies of each library or application and initialize those first.  Once this is complete, control is transferred to the application’s initialization code.

Secondly, further constructors that are local to the application may be called if necessary. In a bare-metal application built using the RVCT libraries, the __cpp_initialize__aeabi_() library function calls these constructors.  In a Linux application, the RVCT linker will resolve the necessary references from the corresponding GNU initialization functions (libc_csu_init()) to allow this code to be used instead.

4.3.3          C++ exception example library (cppex_lib directory)

This demonstrates throwing and catching exceptions between libraries and applications. It is based around the C++ exception example above which has been split into a library and an application. It demonstrates a C++ exception being thrown between a dynamically linked library and an application, and between a statically linked library and an application.

This example uses the GNU Library exception handling code. It will only work if you are using the 2007-q1-10 CodeSourcery release or later and your target is using the libraries supplied with this release.

The supplied make files build a static library, dynamic library and two application images, one linked to each variety of the libraries.

4.3.4          Notes on constructors for static C++ objects

When developing C++ applications, you should be careful not to rely on the order in which static objects’ constructors are called.  Note that the ARM linker will not guarantee the order in which they are called at runtime, as the C++ standard does not guarantee the order in which the constructors are called.

The main consequence of this will be that the same code in a static library or a dynamic library may have its constructors called in a different order.  The cpp_library example demonstrates this.  When statically linked as part of the application executable, the C++ objects constructed in the library will have a different number than when the library is dynamic.

This is only of importance when you must rely on the ordering of constructors, for example where there are interdependencies between the objects.  You can use the following points as a guide:

·         All dynamic library objects will be initialized after their dependencies and before those from static libraries and your main application. However, objects within the same dynamic library cannot have the order of their constructors guaranteed.

·         Libraries that are statically-linked into your application will have their constructors called with the application’s constructors during the C library initialization

·         All statically-linked library and application constructors will be called together, and the order in which they are called cannot be guaranteed.

5                   Troubleshooting and Frequently Asked Questions

This section provides additional information and answers to common questions.

5.1             Frequently Asked Questions

Where can I find further information?

The recommended starting point for further information is the CodeSourcery toolchain FAQ at: http://www.codesourcery.com/gnu_toolchains/arm/faq.html

You may also wish to look at ARM and Linux forums and newsgroups, or looking at mailing list archives.  http://www.arm.linux.org.uk/ and the ARM Linux wiki http://www.linux-arm.org/ provide resources relating specifically to ARM Embedded Linux.

Note that ARM does not provide support on the use of the GNU tools.  See section 1.1 for details.

How do I build an EABI-compliant Linux kernel?

Prior to kernel version 2.6.16 an EABI-compliant kernel could not be built. However, this is only an issue for applications and libraries which directly access kernel structures or functions because the EABI-compliant GNU C library translates calls appropriately from EABI-compliant applications to the non-EABI compliant kernel system calls.

From kernel version 2.6.16, it is possible to build an EABI kernel, however you must still use the GNU toolchain.

Can I build the Linux kernel using RVCT?

The Linux kernel has a large amount of assembly code which is written in gas assembler syntax. The RVCT assembler does not support the gas syntax and therefore cannot be used to build the Linux kernel.

Also as the most critical parts of the kernel are written in assembly and not C you are unlikely to see a significant improvement if RVCT was used to build the kernel.

Which kernel version should I use?

The CodeSourcery toolchain as provided in binary form is built to use NPTL (Native POSIX Thread Library) and it expects to have TLS (thread-local storage) support in the kernel.  Recent CodeSourcery binary releases have a dependency on kernel version 2.6.16 or later, so you are likely to need to use kernel version 2.6.16 or later. Alternatively, your Linux distributor may have already applied the appropriate patches to their kernel build.  You should contact your Linux distributor for more information.

Why do you need to pass so many options to the compiler?

The ARM compiler and linker are primarily used to create standalone, bare-metal applications. The options described in section 2 and shown in the example makefiles make necessary changes to the application image, for correct operation in an ARM Linux environment.

Can I use EABI-compliant and non-EABI-compliant applications together?

Yes. You should place the libraries and the dynamic linker in a different directory to the normal libraries. We recommend that you use /libeabi for the EABI-compliant libraries, and leave the original, non-EABI compliant libraries in /lib.

You must then set the library search path for EABI applications using the environment variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/libeabi or by using the -–rpath linker option. We recommend that you rebuild all applications to use the EABI in your final system as the extra libraries take up a significant amount of space in the file system.

The compiler generates errors like “Identifier va_list is undefined” when building GNU-style code.

This is because of slightly differing methods of implementing variadic functions between RVCT and GCC.  The solution is to use the compiler option --preinclude stdarg.h to include the definitions of these types before the start of the application code.

I receive warning “L6765W: Shared object entry point must be ARM state with v4T”

The GNU C library startup code does not contain all of the build attributes that the linker uses to determine its execution state.  As a result the linker is unable to confirm that the entry point is in ARM code.  As the GNU C library startup code is ARM code, you can safely ignore this warning, or suppress this as in the examples with –-diag_suppress 6765.

The GNU tools report “ERROR: Source object … has EABI version 5, but target … has EABI version 4” when used on objects generated by RVCT 3.1

RVCT 3.1 generates ELF files conforming to the latest revision of the ABI.  Specifically, they implement revision 5 of the AAELF (ARM ABI ELF) specification.  However, CodeSourcery’s 2005-q3-2 release only supports revision 4 of the AAELF specification and will not consume objects produced by RVCT 3.1 tools.  Support for the new ABI revision is included in the 2006-q1-3 and later releases of the CodeSourcery toolchain.

The GNU linker reports “ld: ERROR: … : Conflicting  definitions of wchar_t”

This is because the GNU linker has detected a mismatch between the wchar_t types used. The CodeSourcery document “ARM GNU/Linux Application Binary Interface Supplement” for building Linux applications specifies that wchar_t must be 32 bits. You are likely to receive this error if you use the GNU linker with the RVCT libraries because the build attributes in the RVCT libraries indicate that they have been built for 16 bit wchar_t. The workaround for this is to use the RVCT linker (armlink).

armlink reports “Fatal error: L6033U: Symbol  in crt1.o is defined relative to an invalid section.”

In the 2006-q1-3 release of the CodeSourcery toolchain the crt1.o object file has not been correctly stripped. This has been fixed in the 2006-q1-6 CodeSourcery release. Alternatively you can strip the crt1.o object yourself.

Intermixing RVCT hardware VFP objects and GNU libraries

The GNU libraries as CodeSourcery supply in their ready-built binary packages are not built with hardware VFP support and return their results in the ARM core’s registers. However RVCT object files that are built for hardware VFP will expect the result to be returned in the VFP coprocessor registers and not in the ARM core’s registers.

The recommended solution for this is to compile with –-fpu SoftVFP+VFP. However, you can also work around this by adding #pragma softfp_linkage before your list of #include lines, and #pragma no_softfp_linkage afterwards. For example:

#pragma softfp_linkage

#include ”header.h”

#pragma no_softfp_linkage

This will instruct armcc to expect the results to be placed in the ARM core's registers when calling these library functions. However you will not get the full benefit of the hardware VFP.


In a large application armlink reports “L6016U: Symbol table missing/corrupt in object/library <object>.”

This is because the GNU ar and ranlib commands can generate incompatible library symbol table information.  Replace ar with armar and use the same command line arguments. Alternatively, the error is recoverable by using "armar -s" to rebuild the symbol table.

Do I have to use the supplied makefiles to build Linux Applications using RVCT?

No, the makefiles are supplied to demonstrate how Linux application can be built using RVCT. They are structured in such a way as to allow users to easily adapt them to their own projects.

As well as the supplied makefiles you can also use the GNU2RVCT script. Please section 2.8 for more details.

Fromelf reports “Error: Q0168E: Error occurred in segment x.”

You can sometimes receive this error message when using fromelf to strip images generated with GCC. Some improvements have been made in RVCT 3.1 patch build 674 and later, or alternatively you can use GNU strip instead.


5.2             Common problems with running your application

Some common problems with running your application are described in Table 5-1.

Table 5-1 Common problems with running applications

Problem

Solution

Cannot find the application

·         Check that you have set the executable flag for the program (use chmod +x program)

·         Check that the application is on the path, or you are running it with ./program in the current directory

·         The dynamic loader may not be the same as specified at link time.  In this case, use /path-to-linker/dynamic-loader program-path/program
For example:
/libeabi/ld-linux.so.3 /opt/bin/eabi/hello

“GLIBC_2.4 not found” error

“unable to find library XXX.so.X”

This is the dynamic linker reporting that it cannot use the libraries found on its default path.  You can use the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable to access the correct libraries.  For example:
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/libeabi ./helloworld

Alternatively you can use the -–rpath linker option.

“Illegal instruction” error before main()

This indicates that the image has been built for the incorrect architecture (e.g. v6 code running on a v5TE core), or the kernel has not been built with NPTL support.

Check that you have built the image for the correct ARM architecture and check that you are using either a 2.6.12 (or later) Linux kernel or one with the appropriate patches applied as part of your distribution.

Also ensure that the syscall interface matches between the Linux kernel and the EABI C library you are using. That is, an old-ABI kernel uses the old syscall interface and the C library might have been built to use the new syscall interface. Note that the binary libraries from recent CodeSourcery releases are built for the new syscall interface.

Once at main() this is likely to be an actual undefined instruction in the application.

Various dynamic linker errors

The pre-built libraries supplied in the 2006-q1-3 and later releases of the CodeSourcery toolchain use the new syscall interface and have been built with an ABI tag that require Linux kernel 2.6.16 or later. The dynamic linker will generate various error messages when run on older kernel revisions. To avoid this you will need to update to the 2.6.16 or later kernel which supports the new syscall interface or rebuild the libraries to support an older kernel revision. The 2.6.16 or later kernel can be configured to support both the new and old syscall interface.

Segmentation faults

There are a variety of possible causes of segmentation faults.  They may be caused by problems with your application. You should also ensure that:

·         You have linked against the GNU C library and used the –-no_scanlib linker switch. Even for a dynamic library, if you do not link against glibc, armlink might statically link the semihosted I/O functions from the RVCT libraries into your application or dynamic library

·         When creating a dynamic library, you have compiled and linked as position-independent code (use --apcs /fpic for the compiler and --fpic for the linker)

·         When creating an application, you have used the linker switches -–no_startup and --entry _start

·         If you are using C++ exceptions you must be using an appropriate CodeSourcery release (2007-q1-10 or later) and the correct libraries on your target filesystem

5.3             Image sizes and stripping debug data

Both the GNU and ARM toolchains add a significant amount of information to an image that is generally only of use for debugging.

For production embedded Linux systems, it is likely that you will want to strip the debugging data from your applications and shared libraries.  With RVCT, this can be removed using the --no_debug switch at the link stage or by running fromelf on the linked image.  In addition, you can use fromelf to remove the “.comment” sections and symbols from the file.  For example:

fromelf --strip debug,comment,symbols --elf -o stripped.axf image.axf

The example makefiles perform the above fromelf step by default.  If you wish to retain the debug tables and the “.comment” section you can define the ENABLE_DEBUG variable.

In addition, the data sizes in RVCT images can be slightly larger than those in GNU images.  This is typically because some ZI data (BSS) is moved into the RW data area for performance reasons on bare-metal systems.  You can move this data to ZI  sections using the compiler switch --bss_threshold=0. Please refer to section 2.1.10 “--bss_threshold=num” of the RVCT 3.1 Compiler Reference Manual.

6                   References and further information

For further information on the GNU toolchain supplied by CodeSourcery, please see:

http://www.codesourcery.com/gnu_toolchains/arm/

In particular, the FAQ for the ARM GNU toolchain can be found at:

http://www.codesourcery.com/gnu_toolchains/arm/faq.html

The full documentation of the ABI for the ARM Architecture can be found at:

http://www.arm.com/products/DevTools/ABI.html

The ARM GNU/Linux ABI Supplement can also be found at:

http://www.codesourcery.com/gnu_toolchains/arm/arm_gnu_linux_abi.pdf

Prebuilt kernel binaries and an example file system image for ARM’s development boards are available from the ARM website at:

http://www.arm.com/linux/

Additional information on the ARM tools can be found in the relevant RVCT 3.1 documentation:

RVCT 3.1 Compiler User Guide (ARM DUI 0205H)

RVCT 3.1 Compiler Reference Guide (ARM DUI 0348A)

RVCT 3.1  Libraries Guide (ARM DUI 0349A)

RVCT 3.1 Linker and Utilities Guide (ARM DUI 0206H)

RVCT 3.1 Developer Guide (ARM DUI 0203G)

General information on ARM Linux can be found from the open-source community.  Useful starting points are:

·         The comp.sys.arm newsgroup

·         The ARM Linux project website: http://www.arm.linux.org.uk/

·         The ARM Linux wiki: http://www.linux-arm.org/

 

 

 

Copyright © 2007 ARM Limited. All rights reserved. ARM DAI 0178B
Non-Confidential