Glossary

This glossary describes some of the terms used in this manual. Where terms can have several meanings, the meaning presented here is intended.

Advanced High-performance Bus (AHB)

The AMBA Advanced High-performance Bus system connects embedded processors such as an ARM core to high-performance peripherals, DMA controllers, on-chip memory, and interfaces. It is a high-speed, high-bandwidth bus that supports multi-master bus management to maximize system performance.

See Also Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture and AHB-Lite.

Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA)

AMBA is the ARM open standard for multi-master on-chip buses, capable of running with multiple masters and slaves. It is an on-chip bus specification that details a strategy for the interconnection and management of functional blocks that make up a System-on-Chip (SoC). It aids in the development of embedded processors with one or more CPUs or signal processors and multiple peripherals. AMBA complements a reusable design methodology by defining a common backbone for SoC modules. AHB conforms to this standard.

See Also Advanced High-performance Bus and AHB-Lite.

Advanced Peripheral Bus (APB)

The AMBA Advanced Peripheral Bus is a simpler bus protocol than AHB. It is designed for use with ancillary or general-purpose peripherals such as timers, interrupt controllers, UARTs, and I/O ports. Connection to the main system bus is through a system-to-peripheral bus bridge that helps to reduce system power consumption.

See Also Advanced High-performance Bus.

AHB

See Advanced High-performance Bus.

AHB-Lite

AHB-Lite is a subset of the full AHB specification. It is intended for use in designs where only a single AHB master is used. This can be a simple single AHB master system or a multi-layer AHB system where there is only one AHB master on a layer.

Aligned

Refers to data items stored so that their address is divisible by the highest power of two that divides their size. Aligned words and halfwords therefore have addresses that are divisible by four and two respectively. The terms word-aligned and halfword-aligned therefore refer to addresses that are divisible by four and two respectively. The terms byte-aligned and doubleword-aligned are defined similarly.

AMBA

See Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture.

APB

See Advanced Peripheral Bus.

Architecture

The organization of hardware and/or software that characterizes a processor and its attached components, and enables devices with similar characteristics to be grouped together when describing their behavior, for example, Harvard architecture, instruction set architecture, ARMv6 architecture.

ARM state

A processor that is executing ARM (32-bit) instructions is operating in ARM state.

See Also Thumb state.

Banked registers

The physical registers whose use is defined by the current processor mode. The banked registers are r8 to r14.

Big-endian

Memory organization in which the least significant byte of a word is at a higher address than the most significant byte.

See Also Little-endian and Endianness.

Burst

A group of transfers to consecutive addresses. Because the addresses are consecutive, there is no requirement to supply an address for any of the transfers after the first one. This increases the speed at which the group of transfers can occur. Bursts over AHB buses are controlled using the HBURST signals to specify if transfers are single, four-beat, eight-beat, or 16-beat bursts, and to specify how the addresses are incremented.

Byte lane strobe

An AHB signal, HBSTRB, that is used for unaligned or mixed-endian data accesses to determine the byte lanes that are active in a transfer. One bit of HBSTRB corresponds to eight bits of the data bus.

Cache

A block of on-chip or off-chip fast access memory locations, situated between the processor and main memory, used for storing and retrieving copies of often used instructions and/or data. This is done to increase the average speed of memory accesses and therefore to increase processor performance.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The part of a processor that contains the ALU, the registers, and the instruction decode logic and control circuitry. Also commonly known as the processor core.

Cold reset

Also known as power-on reset. Starting the processor by turning power on. Turning power off and then back on again clears main memory and many internal settings. Some program failures can lock up the processor and require a cold reset to enable the system to be used again. In other cases, only a warm reset is required.

See Also Warm reset.

Coprocessor

A processor that supplements the main CPU. It carries out additional functions that the main CPU cannot perform. Usually used for floating-point math calculations, signal processing, or memory management.

Core reset

See Warm reset.

CPU

See Central Processing Unit.

Domain

A memory division that is made up of supersections, sections, large pages, or small pages of memory, that can have their access permissions switched rapidly by writing to the Domain Access Control Register, CP15 register 3.

Doubleword

A 64-bit data item. The contents are taken as being an unsigned integer unless otherwise stated.

Endianness

Byte ordering. The scheme that determines the order in which successive bytes of a data word are stored in memory.

See Also Little-endian and Big-endian.

Little-endian

Memory organization where the least significant byte of a word is at a lower address than the most significant byte.

See Also Big-endian and Endianness.

Memory bank

One of two or more parallel divisions of interleaved memory, usually one word wide, that enable reads and writes of multiple words at a time, rather than single words. All memory banks are addressed simultaneously and a bank enable or chip select signal determines the bank that is accessed for each transfer. Accesses to sequential word addresses cause accesses to sequential banks. This enables the delays associated with accessing a bank to occur during the access to its adjacent bank, speeding up memory transfers.

Power-on reset

See Cold reset.

Processor

A contraction of microprocessor. A processor includes the CPU or core, plus additional components such as memory, and interfaces. These are combined as a single macrocell, that can be fabricated on an integrated circuit.

Region

A partition of instruction or data memory space.

Register

A temporary storage location used to hold binary data until it is ready to be used.

Remapping

Changing the address of physical memory or devices after the application has started executing. This is typically done to enable RAM to replace ROM when the initialization has been done.

Reserved

A field in a control register or instruction format is reserved if the field is to be defined by the implementation, or produces Unpredictable results if the contents of the field are not zero. These fields are reserved for use in future extensions of the architecture or are implementation-specific. All reserved bits not used by the implementation must be written as zero and are read as zero.

Scan chain

A scan chain is made up of serially-connected devices that implement boundary scan technology using a standard JTAG TAP interface. Each device contains at least one TAP controller containing shift registers that form the chain connected between TDI and TDO, through which test data is shifted. Processors can contain several shift registers to enable you to access selected parts of the device.

TAP

See Test Access Port.

Test Access Port (TAP)

The collection of four mandatory terminals and one optional terminal that form the input/output and control interface to a JTAG boundary-scan architecture. The mandatory terminals are TDI, TDO, TMS, and TCK. The optional terminal is TRST.

Unaligned

Memory accesses that are not appropriately word-aligned or halfword-aligned.

See Also Aligned.

Undefined

Indicates an instruction that generates an Undefined instruction trap. See the ARM Architectural Reference Manual for more information on ARM exceptions.

Warm reset

Also known as a core reset. Initializes the majority of the processor excluding the debug controller and debug logic. This type of reset is useful if you are using the debugging features of a processor.

Write buffer

A block of high-speed memory, arranged as a FIFO buffer, between the Data Cache and main memory, whose purpose is to optimize stores to main memory. Each entry in the write buffer can contain the address of a data item to be stored to main memory, the data for that item, and a sequential bit that indicates if the next store is sequential or not.

Write completion

The memory system indicates to the CPU that a write has been completed at a point in the transaction where the memory system is able to guarantee that the effect of the write is visible to all processors in the system. This is not the case if the write is associated with a memory synchronization primitive, or is to a Device or Strongly Ordered region. In these cases the memory system might only indicate completion of the write when the access has affected the state of the target, unless it is impossible to distinguish between having the effect of the write visible and having the state of target updated. This stricter requirement for some types of memory ensures that any side-effects of the memory access can be guaranteed by the processor to have taken place. You can use this to prevent the starting of a subsequent operation in the program order until the side-effects are visible.

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