Glossary

This glossary describes some of the terms used in ARM manuals. Where terms can have several meanings, the meaning presented here is intended.

Advanced High-performance Bus (AHB)

The AMBA Advanced High-performance Bus system connects embedded processors such as an ARM core to high-performance peripherals, DMA controllers, on-chip memory, and interfaces. It is a high-speed, high-bandwidth bus that supports multi-master bus management to maximize system performance.

See Also Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture and AHB-Lite.

Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA)

AMBA is the ARM open standard for multi-master on-chip buses, capable of running with multiple masters and slaves. It is an on-chip bus specification that details a strategy for the interconnection and management of functional blocks that make up a System-on-Chip (SoC). It aids in the development of embedded processors with one or more CPUs or signal processors and multiple peripherals. AMBA complements a reusable design methodology by defining a common backbone for SoC modules. AHB conforms to this standard.

Advanced Peripheral Bus (APB)

The AMBA Advanced Peripheral Bus is a simpler bus protocol than AHB. It is designed for use with ancillary or general-purpose peripherals such as timers, interrupt controllers, UARTs, and I/O ports. Connection to the main system bus is through a system-to-peripheral bus bridge that helps to reduce system power consumption.

See Also Advanced High-performance Bus.

AHB

See Advanced High-performance Bus.

AHB-Lite

AHB-Lite is a subset of the full AHB specification. It is intended for use in designs where only a single AHB master is used. This can be a simple single AHB master system or a multi-layer AHB system where there is only one AHB master on a layer.

Aligned

Aligned data items are stored so that their address is divisible by the highest power of two that divides their size. Aligned words and halfwords have addresses that are divisible by four and two respectively. The terms word-aligned and halfword-aligned therefore stipulate addresses that are divisible by four and two respectively.

AMBA

See Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture.

APB

See Advanced Peripheral Bus.

ATB bridge

A synchronous ATB bridge provides a register slice to facilitate timing closure through the addition of a pipeline stage. It also provides a unidirectional link between two synchronous ATB domains. An asynchronous ATB bridge provides a unidirectional link between two ATB domains with asynchronous clocks. It is intended to support connection of components with ATB ports residing in different clock domains.

Big-endian

Byte ordering scheme in which bytes of decreasing significance in a data word are stored at increasing addresses in memory.

See Also Little-endian and Endianness.

Burst

A group of transfers to consecutive addresses. Because the addresses are consecutive, there is no requirement to supply an address for any of the transfers after the first one. This increases the speed at which the group of transfers can occur. Bursts over AHB buses are controlled using the HBURST signals to specify if transfers are single, four-beat, eight-beat, or 16-beat bursts, and to specify how the addresses are incremented.

Byte

An 8-bit data item.

Byte-invariant

In a byte-invariant system, the address of each byte of memory remains unchanged when switching between little-endian and big-endian operation. When a data item larger than a byte is loaded from or stored to memory, the bytes making up that data item are arranged into the correct order depending on the endianness of the memory access. The ARM architecture supports byte-invariant systems in ARMv6 and later versions. When byte-invariant support is selected, unaligned halfword and word memory accesses are also supported. Multi-word accesses are expected to be word-aligned.

See Also Word-invariant.

Byte lane strobe

An AHB signal, HBSTRB, that is used for unaligned or mixed-endian data accesses to determine which byte lanes are active in a transfer. One bit of HBSTRB corresponds to eight bits of the data bus.

Cross Trigger Interface (CTI)

Part of an Embedded Cross Trigger device. The CTI provides the interface between a core/ETM and the CTM within an ECT.

Cross Trigger Matrix (CTM)

The CTM combines the trigger requests generated from CTIs and broadcasts them to all CTIs as channel triggers within an Embedded Cross Trigger device.

CTI

See Cross Trigger Interface.

CTM

See Cross Trigger Matrix.

CoreSight

The infrastructure for monitoring, tracing, and debugging a complete system on chip.

Debugger

A debugging system that includes a program, used to detect, locate, and correct software faults, together with custom hardware that supports software debugging.

Doubleword

A 64-bit data item. The contents are taken as being an unsigned integer unless otherwise stated.

Doubleword-aligned

A data item having a memory address that is divisible by eight.

ECT

See Embedded Cross Trigger.

Embedded Cross Trigger (ECT)

The ECT is a modular component to support the interaction and synchronization of multiple triggering events with an SoC.

Embedded Trace Buffer

The ETB provides on-chip storage of trace data using a configurable sized RAM.

Embedded Trace Macrocell (ETM)

A hardware macrocell that, when connected to a processor core, outputs instruction and data trace information on a trace port. The ETM provides processor driven trace through a trace port compliant to the ATB protocol.

Endianness

Byte ordering. The scheme that determines the order in which successive bytes of a data word are stored in memory. An aspect of the system’s memory mapping.

See Also Little-endian and Big-endian.

ETB

See Embedded Trace Buffer.

ETM

See Embedded Trace Macrocell.

Halfword

A 16-bit data item.

IEM

See Intelligent Energy Management.

Implementation-specific

Means that the behavior is not architecturally defined, and does not have to be documented by individual implementations. Used when there are a number of implementation options available and the option chosen does not affect software compatibility.

Imprecise tracing

A filtering configuration where instruction or data tracing can start or finish earlier or later than expected. Most cases cause tracing to start or finish later than expected.

For example, if TraceEnable is configured to use a counter so that tracing begins after the fourth write to a location in memory, the instruction that caused the fourth write is not traced, although subsequent instructions are. This is because the use of a counter in the TraceEnable configuration always results in imprecise tracing.

Intelligent Energy Management (IEM)

A technology that enables dynamic voltage scaling and clock frequency variation to be used to reduce power consumption in a device.

LE

Little endian view of memory in both byte-invariant and word-invariant systems. See also Byte-invariant, Word-invariant.

Little-endian

Byte ordering scheme in which bytes of increasing significance in a data word are stored at increasing addresses in memory.

See Also Big-endian and Endianness.

Macrocell

A complex logic block with a defined interface and behavior. A typical VLSI system comprises several macrocells (such as a processor, an ETM, and a memory block) plus application-specific logic.

Multi master

An AMBA bus sharing scheme (not in AMBA Lite) where different masters can gain a bus lock (Grant) to access the bus in an interleaved fashion.

Processor

A processor is the circuitry in a computer system required to process data using the computer instructions. It is an abbreviation of microprocessor. A clock source, power supplies, and main memory are also required to create a minimum complete working computer system.

Replicator

A replicator enables two trace sinks to be wired together and to operate independently on the same incoming trace stream. The input trace stream is output onto two (independent) ATB ports.

Reserved

A field in a control register or instruction format is reserved if the field is to be defined by the implementation, or produces Unpredictable results if the contents of the field are not zero. These fields are reserved for use in future extensions of the architecture or are implementation‑specific. All reserved bits not used by the implementation must be written as 0 and read as 0.

SBO

See Should Be One.

SBZ

See Should Be Zero.

SBZP

See Should Be Zero or Preserved.

Should Be One (SBO)

Should be written as 1 (or all 1s for bit fields) by software. Writing a 0 produces Unpredictable results.

Should Be Zero (SBZ)

Should be written as 0 (or all 0s for bit fields) by software. Writing a 1 produces Unpredictable results.

Should Be Zero or Preserved (SBZP)

Should be written as 0 (or all 0s for bit fields) by software, or preserved by writing the same value back that has been previously read from the same field on the same processor.

TPIU

See Trace Port Interface Unit.

Trace funnel

A device that combines multiple trace sources onto a single bus.

Trace hardware

A term for a device that contains an Embedded Trace Macrocell.

Trace port

A port on a device, such as a processor or ASIC, used to output trace information.

Trace Port Interface Unit (TPIU)

The TPIU is used to drain trace data and acts as a bridge between the on-chip trace data and the data stream captured by a TPA.

Unaligned

A data item stored at an address that is not divisible by the number of bytes that defines the data size is said to be unaligned. For example, a word stored at an address that is not divisible by four.

Unpredictable

For reads, the data returned from the location can have any value. For writes, writing to the location causes unpredictable behavior, or an unpredictable change in device configuration. Unpredictable instructions must not halt or hang the processor, or any part of the system.

Word

A 32-bit data item.

Word-invariant

In a word-invariant system, the address of each byte of memory changes when switching between little-endian and big-endian operation, in such a way that the byte with address A in one endianness has address A EOR 3 in the other endianness. As a result, each aligned word of memory always consists of the same four bytes of memory in the same order, regardless of endianness. The change of endianness occurs because of the change to the byte addresses, not because the bytes are rearranged.The ARM architecture supports word-invariant systems in ARMv3 and later versions. When word-invariant support is selected, the behavior of load or store instructions that are given unaligned addresses is instruction-specific, and is in general not the expected behavior for an unaligned access. It is recommended that word-invariant systems should use the endianness that produces the desired byte addresses at all times, apart possibly from very early in their reset handlers before they have set up the endianness, and that this early part of the reset handler should use only aligned word memory accesses.

See Also Byte-invariant.

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