Glossary

This glossary describes some of the terms used in ARM manuals. Where terms can have several meanings, the meaning presented here is intended.

Advanced eXtensible Interface (AXI)

This is a bus protocol that supports separate address/control and data phases, unaligned data transfers using byte strobes, burst-based transactions with only start address issued, separate read and write data channels to enable low-cost DMA, ability to issue multiple outstanding addresses, out-of-order transaction completion, and easy addition of register stages to provide timing closure.The AXI protocol also includes optional extensions to cover signaling for low-power operation.

AXI is targeted at high performance, high clock frequency system designs and includes a number of features that make it very suitable for high speed sub-micron interconnect.

Advanced High-performance Bus (AHB)

The AMBA Advanced High-performance Bus system connects embedded processors such as an ARM core to high-performance peripherals, DMA controllers, on-chip memory, and interfaces. It is a high-speed, high-bandwidth bus that supports multi-master bus management to maximize system performance.

See Also Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture and AHB-Lite.

Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA)

AMBA is the ARM open standard for multi-master on-chip buses, capable of running with multiple masters and slaves. It is an on-chip bus specification that details a strategy for the interconnection and management of functional blocks that make up a System-on-Chip (SoC). It aids in the development of embedded processors with one or more CPUs or signal processors and multiple peripherals. AMBA complements a reusable design methodology by defining a common backbone for SoC modules. AHB conforms to this standard.

Advanced Peripheral Bus (APB)

The AMBA Advanced Peripheral Bus is a simpler bus protocol than AHB. It is designed for use with ancillary or general-purpose peripherals such as timers, interrupt controllers, UARTs, and I/O ports. Connection to the main system bus is through a system-to-peripheral bus bridge that helps to reduce system power consumption.

See Also Advanced High-performance Bus.

AHB

See Advanced High-performance Bus.

AHB Access Port (AHB-AP)

An optional component of the DAP that provides an AHB interface to an SoC.

AHB-AP

See AHB Access Port.

AHB-Lite

AHB-Lite is a subset of the full AHB specification. It is intended for use in designs where only a single AHB master is used. This can be a simple single AHB master system or a multi-layer AHB system where there is only one AHB master on a layer.

Aligned

Aligned data items are stored so that their address is divisible by the highest power of two that divides their size. Aligned words and halfwords have addresses that are divisible by four and two respectively. The terms word-aligned and halfword-aligned therefore stipulate addresses that are divisible by four and two respectively.

AMBA

See Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture.

APB

See Advanced Peripheral Bus.

Architecture

The organization of hardware and/or software that characterizes a processor and its attached components, and enables devices with similar characteristics to be grouped together when describing their behavior, for example, Harvard architecture, instruction set architecture, ARMv6 architecture.

AXI

See Advanced eXstensible Interface.

BST

See Boundary scan trickbox.

Burst

A group of transfers to consecutive addresses. Because the addresses are consecutive, there is no requirement to supply an address for any of the transfers after the first one. This increases the speed at which the group of transfers can occur. Bursts over AHB buses are controlled using the HBURST signals to specify if transfers are single, four-beat, eight-beat, or 16-beat bursts, and to specify how the addresses are incremented.

Byte

An 8-bit data item.

Communications channel

The hardware used for communicating between the software running on the processor, and an external host, using the debug interface. When this communication is for debug purposes, it is called the Debug Comms Channel. In an ARMv6 compliant core, the communications channel includes the Data Transfer Register, some bits of the Data Status and Control Register, and the external debug interface controller, such as the DBGTAP controller in the case of the JTAG interface.

Control bits

The bottom eight bits of a Program Status Register (PSR). The control bits change when an exception arises and can be altered by software only when the processor is in a privileged mode.

Core

A core is that part of a processor that contains the ALU, the datapath, the general-purpose registers, the Program Counter, and the instruction decode and control circuitry.

Core module

In the context of an ARM Integrator, a core module is an add-on development board that contains an ARM processor and local memory. Core modules can run standalone, or can be stacked onto Integrator motherboards.

DBGTAP

See Debug Test Access Port.

Direct Memory Access (DMA)

An operation that accesses main memory directly, without the processor performing any accesses to the data concerned.

Doubleword

A 64-bit data item. The contents are taken as being an unsigned integer unless otherwise stated.

Doubleword-aligned

A data item having a memory address that is divisible by eight.

DSM

See Design Simulation Model.

DVS

See Device Validation Suite.

Event

1 (Simple) An observable condition that can be used by an ETM to control aspects of a trace.

2 (Complex) A boolean combination of simple events that is used by an ETM to control aspects of a trace.

Exception

A fault or error event that is considered serious enough to require that program execution is interrupted. Examples include attempting to perform an invalid memory access, external interrupts, and undefined instructions. When an exception occurs, normal program flow is interrupted and execution is resumed at the corresponding exception vector. This contains the first instruction of the interrupt handler to deal with the exception.

Exponent

The component of a floating-point number that normally signifies the integer power to which two is raised in determining the value of the represented number.

Fraction

The floating-point field that lies to the right of the implied binary point.

Half-rate clocking (ETM)

Dividing the trace clock by two so that the TPA can sample trace data signals on both the rising and falling edges of the trace clock. The primary purpose of half-rate clocking is to reduce the signal transition rate on the trace clock of an ASIC for very high-speed systems.

Halfword

A 16-bit data item.

Macrocell

A complex logic block with a defined interface and behavior. A typical VLSI system comprises several macrocells (such as a processor, an ETM, and a memory block) plus application-specific logic.

Microprocessor

See Processor.

Processor

A processor is the circuitry in a computer system required to process data using the computer instructions. It is an abbreviation of microprocessor. A clock source, power supplies, and main memory are also required to create a minimum complete working computer system.

Programming Language Interface (PLI)

For Verilog simulators, an interface by which so-called foreign code (code written in a different language) can be included in a simulation.

Read

Reads are defined as memory operations that have the semantics of a load. That is, the ARM instructions LDM, LDRD, LDC, LDR, LDRT, LDRSH, LDRH, LDRSB, LDRB, LDRBT, LDREX, RFE, STREX, SWP, and SWPB, and the Thumb instructions LDM, LDR, LDRSH, LDRH, LDRSB, LDRB, and POP. Java instructions that are accelerated by hardware can cause a number of reads to occur, according to the state of the Java stack and the implementation of the Java hardware acceleration.

SBO

See Should Be One.

SBZ

See Should Be Zero.

SBZP

See Should Be Zero or Preserved.

Should Be Zero or Preserved (SBZP)

Should be written as 0 (or all 0s for bit fields) by software, or preserved by writing the same value back that has been previously read from the same field on the same processor.

Significand

The component of a binary floating-point number that consists of an explicit or implicit leading bit to the left of the implied binary point and a fraction field to the right.

Tightly coupled memory (TCM)

An area of low latency memory that provides predictable instruction execution or data load timing in cases where deterministic performance is required. TCMs are suited to holding: - critical routines (such as for interrupt handling) - scratchpad data - data types whose locality is not suited to caching - critical data structures (such as interrupt stacks).

Unpredictable

For reads, the data returned from the location can have any value. For writes, writing to the location causes unpredictable behavior, or an unpredictable change in device configuration. Unpredictable instructions must not halt or hang the processor, or any part of the system.

Unsupported values

Specific data values that are not processed by the VFP coprocessor hardware but bounced to the support code for completion. These data can include infinities, NaNs, subnormal values, and zeros. An implementation is free to select which of these values is supported in hardware fully or partially, or requires assistance from support code to complete the operation. Any exception resulting from processing unsupported data is trapped to user code if the corresponding exception enable bit for the exception is set.

Word

A 32-bit data item.

Word-invariant

In a word-invariant system, the address of each byte of memory changes when switching between little-endian and big-endian operation, in such a way that the byte with address A in one endianness has address A EOR 3 in the other endianness. As a result, each aligned word of memory always consists of the same four bytes of memory in the same order, regardless of endianness. The change of endianness occurs because of the change to the byte addresses, not because the bytes are rearranged.The ARM architecture supports word-invariant systems in ARMv3 and later versions. When word-invariant support is selected, the behavior of load or store instructions that are given unaligned addresses is instruction-specific, and is in general not the expected behavior for an unaligned access. It is recommended that word-invariant systems should use the endianness that produces the desired byte addresses at all times, apart possibly from very early in their reset handlers before they have set up the endianness, and that this early part of the reset handler should use only aligned word memory accesses.

See Also Byte-invariant.

Write

Writes are defined as operations that have the semantics of a store. That is, the ARM instructions SRS, STM, STRD, STC, STRT, STRH, STRB, STRBT, STREX, SWP, and SWPB, and the Thumb instructions STM, STR, STRH, STRB, and PUSH. Java instructions that are accelerated by hardware can cause a number of writes to occur, according to the state of the Java stack and the implementation of the Java hardware acceleration.

Write-back (WB)

In a write-back cache, data is only written to main memory when it is forced out of the cache on line replacement following a cache miss. Otherwise, writes by the processor only update the cache. (Also known as copyback).

Write buffer

A block of high-speed memory, arranged as a FIFO buffer, between the data cache and main memory, whose purpose is to optimize stores to main memory.

Write completion

The memory system indicates to the processor that a write has been completed at a point in the transaction where the memory system is able to guarantee that the effect of the write is visible to all processors in the system. This is not the case if the write is associated with a memory synchronization primitive, or is to a Device or Strongly Ordered region. In these cases the memory system might only indicate completion of the write when the access has affected the state of the target, unless it is impossible to distinguish between having the effect of the write visible and having the state of target updated.

This stricter requirement for some types of memory ensures that any side-effects of the memory access can be guaranteed by the processor to have taken place. You can use this to prevent the starting of a subsequent operation in the program order until the side-effects are visible.

Write-through (WT)

In a write-through cache, data is written to main memory at the same time as the cache is updated.

WT

See Write-through.

XVC

See eXternal Verification Component.

XVC Test Scenario Manager

This co-ordinates the operation of multiple XVCs.

See Also eXternal Verification Component.

XTSM

See XVC Test Scenario Manager.

Cache terminology diagram

The diagram below illustrates the following cache terminology:

  • block address

  • cache line

  • cache set

  • cache way

  • index

  • tag.

Copyright © 2005 ARM Limited. All rights reserved.ARM DDI 0364A
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