Glossary

This glossary describes some of the terms used in ARM manuals. Where terms can have several meanings, the meaning presented here is intended.

Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA)

A family of protocol specifications that describe a strategy for the interconnect. AMBA is the ARM open standard for on-chip buses. It is an on-chip bus specification that details a strategy for the interconnection and management of functional blocks that make up a System-on-Chip (SoC). It aids in the development of embedded processors with one or more CPUs or signal processors and multiple peripherals. AMBA complements a reusable design methodology by defining a common backbone for SoC modules.

Advanced Peripheral Bus (APB)

A simpler bus protocol than AXI and AHB. It is designed for use with ancillary or general-purpose peripherals such as timers, interrupt controllers, UARTs, and I/O ports. Connection to the main system bus is through a system-to-peripheral bus bridge that helps to reduce system power consumption.

AMBA

See Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture.

Advanced Trace Bus (ATB)

A bus used by trace devices to share CoreSight capture resources.

APB

See Advanced Peripheral Bus.

Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)

An integrated circuit that has been designed to perform a specific application function. It can be custom-built or mass-produced.

Architecture

The organization of hardware and/or software that characterizes a processor and its attached components, and enables devices with similar characteristics to be grouped together when describing their behavior, for example, Harvard architecture, instruction set architecture, ARMv6 architecture.

ARM instruction

A word that specifies an operation for an ARM processor to perform. ARM instructions must be word-aligned.

ARM state

A processor that is executing ARM (32-bit) word-aligned instructions is operating in ARM state.

ASIC

See Application Specific Integrated Circuit.

ATB

See Advanced Trace Bus.

ATB bridge

A synchronous ATB bridge provides a register slice to facilitate timing closure through the addition of a pipeline stage. It also provides a unidirectional link between two synchronous ATB domains.

An asynchronous ATB bridge provides a unidirectional link between two ATB domains with asynchronous clocks. It is intended to support connection of components with ATB ports residing in different clock domains.

Breakpoint

A breakpoint is a mechanism provided by debuggers to identify an instruction at which program execution is to be halted. Breakpoints are inserted by the programmer to enable inspection of register contents, memory locations, variable values at fixed points in the program execution to test that the program is operating correctly. Breakpoints are removed after the program is successfully tested.

See Also Watchpoint.

Byte

An 8-bit data item.

Cold reset

Also known as power-on reset. Starting the processor by turning power on. Turning power off and then back on again clears main memory and many internal settings. Some program failures can lock up the processor and require a cold reset to enable the system to be used again. In other cases, only a warm reset is required.

See Also Warm reset.

Communications channel

The hardware used for communicating between the software running on the processor, and an external host, using the debug interface. When this communication is for debug purposes, it is called the Debug Comms Channel. In an ARMv6 compliant processor, the communications channel includes the Data Transfer Register, some bits of the Data Status and Control Register, and the external debug interface controller, such as the DBGTAP controller in the case of the JTAG interface.

Condition field

A four-bit field in an instruction that specifies a condition under which the instruction can execute.

Conditional execution

If the condition code flags indicate that the corresponding condition is true when the instruction starts executing, it executes normally. Otherwise, the instruction does nothing.

Context

The environment that each process operates in for a multitasking operating system. In ARM processors, this is limited to mean the physical address range that it can access in memory and the associated memory access permissions.

See Also Fast context switch.

Control bits

The bottom eight bits of a Program Status Register. The control bits change when an exception arises and can be altered by software only when the processor is in a privileged mode.

Core

A core is that part of a processor that contains the ALU, the datapath, the general-purpose registers, the Program Counter, and the instruction decode and control circuitry.

Core reset

See Warm reset.

CoreSight

The infrastructure for monitoring, tracing, and debugging a complete system on chip.

Cross Trigger Interface (CTI)

Part of an Embedded Cross Trigger device. The CTI provides the interface between a core/ETM and the CTM within an ECT.

Cross Trigger Matrix (CTM)

The CTM combines the trigger requests generated from CTIs and broadcasts them to all CTIs as channel triggers within an Embedded Cross Trigger device.

CTI

See Cross Trigger Interface.

CTM

See Cross Trigger Matrix.

DBGTAP

See Debug Test Access Port.

Debugger

A debugging system that includes a program, used to detect, locate, and correct software faults, together with custom hardware that supports software debugging.

ECT

See Embedded Cross Trigger.

Embedded Cross Trigger (ECT)

The ECT is a modular component to support the interaction and synchronization of multiple triggering events with an SoC.

EmbeddedICE-RT

The JTAG-based hardware provided by debuggable ARM processors to aid debugging in real-time.

Embedded Trace Macrocell (ETM)

A hardware macrocell that, when connected to a processor core, outputs instruction and data trace information on a trace port.

The Program Flow Trace macrocell provides processor driven instruction-only trace through a trace port compliant to the ATB protocol.

ETM

See Embedded Trace Macrocell.

Exception

A fault or error event that is considered serious enough to require that program execution is interrupted. Examples include attempting to perform an invalid memory access, external interrupts, and undefined instructions. When an exception occurs, normal program flow is interrupted and execution is resumed at the corresponding exception vector. This contains the first instruction of the interrupt handler to deal with the exception.

Exception service routine

See Interrupt handler.

Exception vector

See Interrupt vector.

Flat address mapping

A system of organizing memory in which each Physical Address contained within the memory space is the same as its corresponding Virtual Address.

Halt mode

One of two mutually exclusive debug modes. In halt mode all processor execution halts when a breakpoint or watchpoint is encountered. All processor state, coprocessor state, memory and input/output locations can be examined and altered by the JTAG interface.

See Also Monitor debug-mode.

Host

A computer that provides data and other services to another computer. Especially, a computer providing debugging services to a target being debugged.

IGN

See Ignore.

Ignore (IGN)

Must ignore memory writes.

Illegal instruction

An instruction that is architecturally Undefined.

Implementation-defined

The behavior is not architecturally defined, but is defined and documented by individual implementations.

Implementation-specific

The behavior is not architecturally defined, and does not have to be documented by individual implementations. Used when there are a number of implementation options available and the option chosen does not affect software compatibility.

Imprecise tracing

A filtering configuration where instruction or data tracing can start or finish earlier or later than expected. Most cases cause tracing to start or finish later than expected.

For example, if TraceEnable is configured to use a counter so that tracing begins after the fourth write to a location in memory, the instruction that caused the fourth write is not traced, although subsequent instructions are. This is because the use of a counter in the TraceEnable configuration always results in imprecise tracing.

Instrumentation trace

A component for debugging real-time systems through a simple memory-mapped trace interface, providing printf style debugging.

Interrupt handler

A program that control of the processor is passed to when an interrupt occurs.

Interrupt vector

One of a number of fixed addresses in low memory, or in high memory if high vectors are configured, that contains the first instruction of the corresponding interrupt handler.

Jazelle architecture

The ARM Jazelle architecture extends the Thumb and ARM operating states by adding a Java state to the processor. Instruction set support for entering and exiting Java applications, real-time interrupt handling, and debug support for mixed Java/ARM applications is present. When in Java state, the processor fetches and decodes Java bytecodes and maintains the Java operand stack.

JTAG

See Joint Test Action Group.

JTAG Access Port (JTAG-AP)

An optional component of the DAP that provides JTAG access to on-chip components, operating as a JTAG master port to drive JTAG chains throughout a SoC.

JTAG-AP

See JTAG Access Port.

JTAG Debug Port (JTAG-DP)

An optional external interface for the DAP that provides a standard JTAG interface for debug access.

JTAG-DP

See JTAG Debug Port.

Load/store architecture

A processor architecture where data-processing operations only operate on register contents, not directly on memory contents.

Macrocell

A complex logic block with a defined interface and behavior. A typical VLSI system comprises several macrocells (such as a processor, an ETM, and a memory block) plus application-specific logic.

Memory bank

One of two or more parallel divisions of interleaved memory, usually one word wide, that enable reads and writes of multiple words at a time, rather than single words. All memory banks are addressed simultaneously and a bank enable or chip select signal determines which of the banks is accessed for each transfer. Accesses to sequential word addresses cause accesses to sequential banks. This enables the delays associated with accessing a bank to occur during the access to its adjacent bank, speeding up memory transfers.

Memory coherency

A memory is coherent if the value read by a data read or instruction fetch is the value that was most recently written to that location. Memory coherency is made difficult when there are multiple possible physical locations that are involved, such as a system that has main memory, a write buffer and a cache.

Microprocessor

See Processor.

Miss

See Cache miss.

Monitor debug-mode

One of two mutually exclusive debug modes. In Monitor debug-mode the processor enables a software abort handler provided by the debug monitor or operating system debug task. When a breakpoint or watchpoint is encountered, this enables vital system interrupts to continue to be serviced while normal program execution is suspended.

See Also Halt mode.

Multi-ICE

A JTAG-based tool for debugging embedded systems.

Multi-layer

An interconnect scheme similar to a cross-bar switch. Each master on the interconnect has a direct link to each slave, The link is not shared with other masters. This enables each master to process transfers in parallel with other masters. Contention only occurs in a multi-layer interconnect at a payload destination, typically the slave.

Multi-master AHB

Typically a shared, not multi-layer, AHB interconnect scheme. More than one master connects to a single AMBA AHB link. In this case, the bus is implemented with a set of full AMBA AHB master interfaces. Masters that use the AMBA AHB-Lite protocol must connect through a wrapper to supply full AMBA AHB master signals to support multi-master operation.

Power-on reset

See Cold reset.

Prefetching

In pipelined processors, the process of fetching instructions from memory to fill up the pipeline before the preceding instructions have finished executing. Prefetching an instruction does not mean that the instruction has to be executed.

Processor

A processor is the circuitry in a computer system required to process data using the computer instructions. It is an abbreviation of microprocessor. A clock source, power supplies, and main memory are also required to create a minimum complete working computer system.

RealView ICE

A system for debugging embedded processor cores using a JTAG interface.

Region

A partition of instruction or data memory space.

Remapping

Changing the address of physical memory or devices after the application has started executing. This is typically done to permit RAM to replace ROM when the initialization has been completed.

Replicator

A replicator enables two trace sinks to be wired together and to operate independently on the same incoming trace stream. The input trace stream is output onto two (independent) ATB ports.

Reserved

A field in a control register or instruction format is reserved if the field is to be defined by the implementation, or produces Unpredictable results if the contents of the field are not zero. These fields are reserved for use in future extensions of the architecture or are implementation-specific. All reserved bits not used by the implementation must be written as 0 and read as 0.

Saved Program Status Register (SPSR)

The register that holds the CPSR of the task immediately before the exception occurred that caused the switch to the current mode.

SBO

See Should Be One.

SBZ

See Should Be Zero.

SBZP

See Should Be Zero or Preserved.

Scalar operation

A VFP coprocessor operation involving a single source register and a single destination register.

See Also Vector operation.

SDF

See Standard Delay Format.

Set

See Cache set.

Should Be One (SBO)

Should be written as 1 (or all 1s for bit fields) by software. Writing a 0 produces Unpredictable results.

Should Be Zero (SBZ)

Should be written as 0 (or all 0s for bit fields) by software. Writing a 1 produces Unpredictable results.

Should Be Zero or Preserved (SBZP)

Should be written as 0 (or all 0s for bit fields) by software, or preserved by writing the same value back that has been previously read from the same field on the same processor.

Sign-Off Model (SOM)

An opaque, compiled simulation model generated from a technology specific netlist of an ARM processor, derived after gate level synthesis and timing annotation, that you can use in back-annotated gate-level simulations to prove the function and timing behavior of the device. It enables accurate timing simulation of SoCs and simulation using production test vectors from Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG) tool such as Synopsys TetraMAX. It only supports back-annotation using SDF files. The SOM includes timing information but provides slower simulation than a DSM.

Serial-Wire Debug Port

An optional external interface for the DAP that provides a bidirectional debug interface.

Serial-Wire JTAG (SWJ)

A model whereby a run-control emulator (based on RVI-ME) is placed in the chip and communicated with using a single pin scheme (compared to the four to six for JTAG). This not only reduces pins, but SWJ provides power from the run-control emulator (through the pin). It also provides additional access and a unique ID. The use of this DBT model enables this mode to run very fast for download.

SOM

See Sign-Off Model.

SPICE

Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis. An accurate transistor-level electronic circuit simulation tool that can predict how an equivalent real circuit behaves for given circuit conditions.

SPSR

See Saved Program Status Register.

Standard Delay Format (SDF)

The format of a file that contains timing information to the level of individual bits of buses and is used in SDF back-annotation. An SDF file can be generated in a number of ways, but most commonly from a delay calculator.

SW-DP

See Serial-Wire Debug Port.

SWJ

See Serial-Wire JTAG.

Synchronization primitive

The memory synchronization primitive instructions are those instructions that are used to ensure memory synchronization. That is, the LDREX, STREX, SWP, and SWPB instructions.

TCD

See Trace Capture Device.

Thumb instruction

A halfword that specifies an operation for an ARM processor in Thumb state to perform. Thumb instructions must be halfword-aligned.

Thumb state

A processor that is executing Thumb (16-bit) halfword aligned instructions is operating in Thumb state.

TLB

See Translation Lookaside Buffer.

TPA

See Trace Port Analyzer.

TPIU

See Trace Port Interface Unit.

Trace Capture Device (TCD)

A generic term to describe Trace Port Analyzers, logic analyzers, and on-chip trace buffers.

Trace driver

A Remote Debug Interface target that controls a piece of trace hardware. That is, the trigger macrocell, trace macrocell, and trace capture tool.

Trace funnel

A device that combines multiple trace sources onto a single bus.

Trace hardware

A term for a device that contains an Embedded Trace Macrocell.

Trace port

A port on a device, such as a processor or ASIC, used to output trace information.

Trace Port Analyzer (TPA)

A hardware device that captures trace information output on a trace port. This can be a low-cost product designed specifically for trace acquisition, or a logic analyzer.

Trace Port Interface Unit (TPIU)

Drains trace data and acts as a bridge between the on-chip trace data and the data stream captured by a TPA.

Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB)

A cache of recently used page table entries that avoid the overhead of page table walking on every memory access. Part of the Memory Management Unit.

Translation table

A table, held in memory, that contains data that defines the properties of memory areas of various fixed sizes.

Translation table walk

The process of doing a full translation table lookup. It is performed automatically by hardware.

Unaligned

A data item stored at an address that is not divisible by the number of bytes that defines the data size is said to be unaligned. For example, a word stored at an address that is not divisible by four.

Undefined

Indicates an instruction that generates an Undefined instruction trap. See the ARM Architecture Reference Manual for more details on ARM exceptions.

UNP

See Unpredictable.

Unpredictable

Means that the behavior of the ETM cannot be relied on. Such conditions have not been validated. When applied to the programming of an event resource, only the output of that event resource is Unpredictable.Unpredictable behavior can affect the behavior of the entire system, because the ETM is capable of causing the processor to enter debug state, and external outputs can be used for other purposes.

Warm reset

Also known as a core reset. Initializes the majority of the processor excluding the debug controller and debug logic. This type of reset is useful if you are using the debugging features of a processor.

Watchpoint

A watchpoint is a mechanism provided by debuggers to halt program execution when the data contained by a particular memory address is changed. Watchpoints are inserted by the programmer to enable inspection of register contents, memory locations, and variable values when memory is written to test that the program is operating correctly. Watchpoints are removed after the program is successfully tested. See also Breakpoint.

WB

See Write-back.

Word

A 32-bit data item.

Word-invariant

In a word-invariant system, the address of each byte of memory changes when switching between little-endian and big-endian operation, in such a way that the byte with address A in one endianness has address A EOR 3 in the other endianness. As a result, each aligned word of memory always consists of the same four bytes of memory in the same order, regardless of endianness. The change of endianness occurs because of the change to the byte addresses, not because the bytes are rearranged.The ARM architecture supports word-invariant systems in ARMv3 and later versions. When word-invariant support is selected, the behavior of load or store instructions that are given unaligned addresses is instruction-specific, and is in general not the expected behavior for an unaligned access. It is recommended that word-invariant systems use the endianness that produces the desired byte addresses at all times, apart possibly from very early in their reset handlers before they have set up the endianness, and that this early part of the reset handler must use only aligned word memory accesses.

See Also Byte-invariant.

Write

Writes are defined as operations that have the semantics of a store. That is, the ARM instructions SRS, STM, STRD, STC, STRT, STRH, STRB, STRBT, STREX, SWP, and SWPB, and the Thumb instructions STM, STR, STRH, STRB, and PUSH.

Java instructions that are accelerated by hardware can cause a number of writes to occur, according to the state of the Java stack and the implementation of the Java hardware acceleration.

Write-back (WB)

In a write-back cache, data is only written to main memory when it is forced out of the cache on line replacement following a cache miss. Otherwise, writes by the processor only update the cache. This is also known as copyback.

Write buffer

A block of high-speed memory, arranged as a FIFO buffer, between the data cache and main memory, whose purpose is to optimize stores to main memory.

Write completion

The memory system indicates to the processor that a write has been completed at a point in the transaction where the memory system is able to guarantee that the effect of the write is visible to all processors in the system. This is not the case if the write is associated with a memory synchronization primitive, or is to a Device or Strongly Ordered region. In these cases the memory system might only indicate completion of the write when the access has affected the state of the target, unless it is impossible to distinguish between having the effect of the write visible and having the state of target updated.

This stricter requirement for some types of memory ensures that any side-effects of the memory access can be guaranteed by the processor to have taken place. You can use this to prevent the starting of a subsequent operation in the program order until the side-effects are visible.

Write-through (WT)

In a write-through cache, data is written to main memory at the same time as the cache is updated.

WT

See Write-through.

Copyright © 2009 ARM. All rights reserved.ARM DDI 0435A
Non-Confidential