Glossary

The items in this glossary are listed in alphabetical order, with any symbols and numerics appearing at the end.

ADS

See ARM Developer Suite.

Angel

Angel is a software debug monitor that runs on the target and enables you to debug applications running on ARM-based hardware. Angel is commonly used where a JTAG emulator is not available.

ARM Developer Suite (ADS)

A suite of software development applications, together with supporting documentation and examples, that enable you to write and debug applications for the ARM family of RISC processors. ADS is superseded by RealView Developer Suite (RVDS).

See Also RealView Developer Suite.

Backtracing

See Call Stack.

Big-endian

Memory organization where the least significant byte of a word is at the highest address and the most significant byte is at the lowest address in the word.

See Also Little-endian.

Board

RealView Debugger uses the term board to refer to a target processor, memory, peripherals, and debugger connection method.

Board file

In RealView Debugger, the board file is the top-level configuration file, normally called rvdebug.brd, that references one or more other files.

Breakpoint

A user defined point at which execution stops in order that a debugger can examine the state of memory and registers.

See Also Hardware breakpoint and Software breakpoint.

Call Stack

This is a list of procedure or function call instances on the current program stack. It might also include information about call parameters and local variables for each instance.

Conditional breakpoint

A breakpoint that halts execution when a particular condition becomes True. The condition normally references the values of program variables that are in scope at the breakpoint location.

Context menu

See Pop-up menu.

Core module

In the context of Integrator, an add-on development board that contains an ARM processor and local memory. Core modules can run stand-alone, or can be stacked onto Integrator motherboards.

See Also Integrator.

DCC

See Debug Communications Channel.

Debug Agent (DA)

The Debug Agent resides on the target to provide target-side support for Running System Debug (RSD). The Debug Agent can be a thread or built into the RTOS. The Debug Agent and RealView Debugger communicate with each other using the debug communications channel (DCC). This enables data to be passed between the debugger and the target using the ICE interface, without stopping the program or entering debug state.

See Also Running System Debug.

Debug Communications Channel (DCC)

A debug communications channel enables data to be passed between RealView Debugger and the EmbeddedICE logic on the target using the JTAG interface, without stopping the program flow or entering debug state.

Deprecated

A deprecated option or feature is one that you are strongly discouraged from using. Deprecated options and features are to be removed in future versions of the product.

Digital Signal Processor (DSP)

DSPs are special processors designed to execute repetitive, maths-intensive algorithms. Embedded applications might use both ARM processor cores and DSPs.

Doubleword

A 64-bit unit of information.

DSP

See Digital Signal Processor.

Embedded Trace Macrocell (ETM)

A block of logic, embedded in the hardware, that is connected to the address, data, and status signals of the processor. It broadcasts branch addresses, and data and status information in a compressed protocol through the trace port. It contains the resources used to trigger and filter the trace output.

EmbeddedICE logic

The EmbeddedICE logic is an on-chip logic block that provides TAP-based debug support for ARM processor cores. It is accessed through the TAP controller on the ARM core using the JTAG interface.

See Also IEEE1149.1.

ETM

See Embedded Trace Macrocell.

Execution vehicle

Part of the debug target interface, execution vehicles process requests from the client tools to the target.

Halfword

A 16-bit unit of information.

Halted System Debug (HSD)

Usually used for RTOS aware debugging, Halted System Debug (HSD) means that you can only debug a target when it is not running. This means that you must stop your debug target before carrying out any analysis of your system. With the target stopped, the debugger presents RTOS information to you by reading and interpreting target memory.

See Also Running System Debug.

Hardware breakpoint

A breakpoint that is implemented using non-intrusive additional hardware. Hardware breakpoints are the only method of halting execution when the location is in Read Only Memory (ROM). Using a hardware breakpoint often results in the processor halting completely. This is usually undesirable for a real-time system.

See Also Breakpoint and Software breakpoint.

HSD

See Halted System Debug.

IEEE 1149.1

The IEEE Standard that defines TAP. Commonly (but incorrectly) referred to as JTAG.

See Also Test Access Port.

Integrator

A range of ARM hardware development platforms. Core modules are available that contain the processor and local memory.

Joint Test Action Group (JTAG)

An IEEE group focussed on silicon chip testing methods. Many debug and programming tools use a Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) interface port to communicate with processors. For more information see IEEE Standard, Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture specification 1149.1 (JTAG).

JTAG

See Joint Test Action Group.

JTAG interface unit

A protocol converter that converts low-level commands from RealView Debugger into JTAG signals to the EmbeddedICE logic and the ETM.

Little-endian

Memory organization where the least significant byte of a word is at the lowest address and the most significant byte is at the highest address of the word.

See Also Big-endian.

Multi-ICE

A JTAG-based tool for debugging embedded systems.

Pop-up menu

Also known as Context menu. A menu that is displayed temporarily, offering options relevant to your current situation. Obtainable in most RealView Debugger windows or panes by right-clicking with the mouse pointer inside the window. In some windows the pop-up menu can vary according to the line the mouse pointer is on and the tabbed page that is currently selected.

Processor core

The part of a microprocessor that reads instructions from memory and executes them, including the instruction fetch unit, arithmetic and logic unit and the register bank. It excludes optional coprocessors, caches, and the memory management unit.

Profiling

Accumulation of statistics during execution of a program being debugged, to measure performance or to determine critical areas of code.

RDI

See Remote Debug Interface.

RealView ARMulator ISS (RVISS)

The most recent version of the ARM simulator, RealView ARMulator ISS is supplied with RealView Developer Suite. It communicates with a debug target using RV-msg, through the RealView Connection Broker interface, and RDI.

See Also RDI and RealView Connection Broker.

RealView Compilation Tools (RVCT)

RealView Compilation Tools is a suite of tools, together with supporting documentation and examples, that enables you to write and build applications for the ARM family of RISC processors.

RealView Connection Broker

RealView Connection Broker is an execution vehicle that enables you to connect to simulator targets on your local system, or on a remote system. It also enables you to make multiple connections to the simulator.

See Also RealView ARMulator ISS.

RealView Debugger Trace

Part of the RealView Debugger product that extends the debugging capability with the addition of real-time program and data tracing. It is available from the Code window.

RealView ICE (RVI)

A JTAG-based debug solution to debug software running on ARM processors.

Remote Debug Interface (RDI)

The Remote Debug Interface (RDI) is an ARM standard procedural interface between a debugger and the debug agent. RDI gives the debugger a uniform way to communicate with:

  • a simulator running on the host (for example, RealView ARMulator ISS)

  • a debug monitor running on hardware that is based on an ARM core accessed through a communication link (for example, Angel)

  • a debug agent controlling an ARM processor through hardware debug support (for example, RealView ICE or Multi-ICE).

Remote_A

Remote_A is a software protocol converter and configuration interface. It converts between the RDI 1.5 software interface of a debugger and the Angel Debug Protocol used by Angel targets. It can communicate over a serial or Ethernet interface.

RSD

See Running System Debug.

RTOS

Real Time Operating System.

Running System Debug (RSD)

Used for RTOS aware debugging, Running System Debug (RSD) means that you can debug a target when it is running. This means that you do not have to stop your debug target before carrying out any analysis of your system. RSD gives access to the application using a Debug Agent (DA) that resides on the target. The Debug Agent is scheduled along with other tasks in the system.

See Also Debug Agent and Halted System Debug.

RVCT

See RealView Compilation Tools.

RVISS

See RealView ARMulator ISS.

Scan chain

A scan chain is made up of serially-connected devices that implement boundary-scan technology using a standard JTAG TAP interface. Each device contains at least one TAP controller containing shift registers that form the chain. Processors might contain several shift registers to enable you to access selected parts of the device.

Scope

The range within which it is valid to access such items as a variable or a function.

Semihosting

A mechanism whereby I/O requests made in the application code are communicated to the host system, rather than being executed on the target.

Simulator

A simulator executes non-native instructions in software (simulating a core).

Software breakpoint

A breakpoint that is implemented by replacing an instruction in memory with one that causes the processor to take exceptional action. Because instruction memory must be altered software breakpoints cannot be used where instructions are stored in read-only memory. Using software breakpoints can enable interrupt processing to continue during the breakpoint, making them more suitable for use in real-time systems.

See Also Breakpoint and Hardware breakpoint.

Software Interrupt (SWI)

An instruction that causes the processor to call a programmer-specified subroutine. Used by the ARM standard C library to handle semihosting.

SWI

See Software Interrupt.

TAP

See Test Access Port.

TAP Controller

Logic on a device which enables access to some or all of that device for test purposes. The circuit functionality is defined in IEEE1149.1.

See Also Test Access Port and IEEE1149.1.

Target

The target hardware, including processor, memory, and peripherals, real or simulated, on which the target application is running.

Target vehicle

Target vehicles provide RealView Debugger with a standard interface to disparate targets so that the debugger can connect easily to new target types without having to make changes to the debugger core software.

Target Vehicle Server (TVS)

Essentially the debugger itself, this contains the basic debugging functionality. TVS contains the run control, base multitasking support, much of the command handling, and target knowledge, such as memory mapping, lists, rule processing, board file and .bcd files, and data structures to track the target environment.

Test Access Port (TAP)

The port used to access the TAP Controller for a given device. Comprises TCK, TMS, TDI, TDO, and nTRST (optional).

Tracepoint

A tracepoint can be a line of source code, a line of assembly code, or a memory address. In RealView Debugger, you can set a variety of tracepoints to determine exactly what program information is traced.

Tracing

The real-time recording of processor activity (including instructions and data accesses) that occurs during program execution. Trace information can be stored either in a trace buffer of a processor, or in an external trace hardware unit. Captured trace information is returned to the Analysis window in RealView Debugger where it can be analyzed to help identify a defect in program code.

Trigger

In the context of breakpoints, a trigger is the action of noticing that the breakpoint has been reached by the target and that any associated conditions are met.

In the context of tracing, a trigger is an event that instructs the debugger to stop collecting trace and display the trace information around the trigger position, without halting the processor. The exact information that is displayed depends on the position of the trigger within the buffer.

TVS

See Target Vehicle Server.

Watch

A watch is a variable or expression that you require the debugger to display at every step or breakpoint so that you can see how its value changes. The Watch pane is part of the RealView Debugger Code window that displays the watches you have defined.

Watchpoint

In RealView Debugger, this is a hardware breakpoint.

Word

A 32-bit unit of information.

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