4.71 New block scopes for selection and iteration statements in C99

In a for loop, the first expression can be a declaration, like in C++. The scope of the declaration extends to the body of the loop only.

For example:
extern int max;
for (int n = max - 1; n >= 0; n--)
    // body of loop
is equivalent to:
extern int max;
    int n = max - 1;
    for (; n >= 0; n--)
        // body of loop    


Unlike in C++, you cannot introduce new declarations in a for-test, if-test or switch-expression.
Related concepts
4.59 New language features of C99
4.61 // comments in C99 and C90
4.62 Compound literals in C99
4.63 Designated initializers in C99
4.64 Hexadecimal floating-point numbers in C99
4.65 Flexible array members in C99
4.66 __func__ predefined identifier in C99
4.67 inline functions in C99
4.68 long long data type in C99 and C90
4.69 Macros with a variable number of arguments in C99
4.70 Mixed declarations and statements in C99
4.72 _Pragma preprocessing operator in C99
4.73 Restricted pointers in C99
4.75 Complex numbers in C99
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