1.5 Overview: Linux application rewind

Application rewind is a DS-5 Debugger feature that allows you to debug backwards as well as forwards, through the execution of Linux applications.

Using this feature, you can both run and step, including hitting breakpoints and watchpoints. You can also view the contents of recorded memory, registers, and variables at any point in your application's execution. Debugging backwards, can cut down the time it takes to find a bug from hours to minutes since you do not have to recreate the same steps that caused a crash, which can be difficult in the case of non-deterministic bugs.

For errors as simple as an uninitialized or out-of-range array index, or application crashes caused by null pointers, the application rewind feature can prove extremely useful, especially since a crash might not even occur in the same source file as the one with the bug.


Application Rewind is only supported in DS-5 Professional Edition and DS-5 Ultimate Edition.

Application rewind versus conventional debugging techniques

Trace is an extremely effective tool for debugging system issues as it can record a complete picture of execution and is non-intrusive. Bare-metal or kernel debugging uses trace for this purpose by recording instructions that are executed on a processor over a period of time.

However, from the debugger's view, it is not practical to use trace on Linux applications, because:

  • In production systems, trace might not be exposed, so cannot be accessed.
  • It can be time-consuming to track an application that migrates between cores.
  • On a multicore SoC, a trace buffer can fill rapidly, limiting the amount of time available for recording program execution. Also, in situations where a bug occurs long before the application crash, the trace buffer might not be large enough to capture the full event.

Classic printf debugging techniques present a different set of challenges. It is difficult to know how often you need to stage printf statements and the statement might have a "probe-effect" on your code. Also, rebuilding an application every time an annotation is added can be time-consuming.

For these reasons, when debugging user-space applications over TCP/IP or USB, a different approach is required.

How does application rewind work?

Application rewind debug sessions are launched from the debug configurations panel and can be either controlled from the graphical debugger or the command line debugger.

Application rewind works in a similar way to standard debugging of Linux applications using a TCP/IP or USB connection, though instead of using gdbserver, it uses a custom debug agent. This custom debug agent records a copy-on-write snapshot of the application being debugged, along with non-deterministic inputs. This allows the debugger to reconstruct a complete picture of program execution.


Debugging your application using application rewind results in increased memory consumption on your target and might slow down your application. The exact impact is dependent on the behavior of your application. Applications that perform large amounts of I/O are likely to experience increased memory consumption during the recording process.

Once a bug is recorded, replay is deterministic, with exactly the same behavior observed with each rewind and play.

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